状语从句讲义(附相关高考题)

时间:2021-04-23 09:19       来源: 未知
状语从句讲义(附相关高考题)

状 语 从 句

一、基本概念

定义:在复合句中由从句表示的状语称作状语从句,它可以用来修饰谓语(包括非谓语动词)、定语或状语,或是整个句子。状语从句通常由一个连词引起,也可以由一个起连词作用的词组引起,有时甚至不需要连词直接和主句连接起来。状语从句一般分为九大类(见下表):

句 类 别

时间

状语

从句 地点状语从句 原因状语从句 目的状语从句 结果状语从句 条件状语从句 方式状语从句 比较状语从句 让步状语从句

状语从句讲义(附相关高考题)

1.时间状语从句:

在时间状语从句中,要注意时态一致,一般情况下主句是将来时的时候,从句要用一般现在时。可以引导时间状语从句的连词很多,根据意义和主从句之间的时间关系,又可分类如下:

(1) 表示同时性, 即主从句的谓语动作同时发生或几乎同时发生。其连词有:when (当……的时候), while(当……的时候), as(当……的时候), as soon as(一……就……), once(一旦……)等。如:

Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁。

While I am washing the floor, you can be cleaning the windows.(while含有对比的意思)

我洗地板的时候,你可以擦窗户。

As / When I came home, I met an old schoolmate of mine.

我回家的时候遇到了我的一位老同学。

I’ll ring you up as soon as I get an answer from him. 我一有他的答复就给你打电话。

Once you see him, you will never forget him. 你一旦见过他,就不会忘了他的。

(2) 表示先时或后时,即主句的谓语动作发生在从句之前或之后,主要连词有:after (在……后), before (在……之前), when (=after)等。如:

After / When the children had gone to bed, she began to prepare her lessons.(从句的动作发生在主句的动作之前,所以从句用了过去完成时) 孩子睡觉了以后她开始备课。

He had learned English for three years before he went to London.(主句的动作发生在从句的动作之前,所以主句用了过去完成时) 他去伦敦之前已学了三年英语。

It was not long before I forgot it all. (It is / was / will be …before…是常用句型)

He ran off before I could stop him.(主句和从句的动作几乎同时发生,时态一致)

我还没来得及阻止他他就跑掉了。(注意before在汉语中的译义)

(3) 表示习惯性、经常性,即从句描述的不是一次性动作,而是经常发生的习惯性动作。主要连词有every time(每次), each time(每次), whenever(每当)等。例如:

Whenever we met with difficulties, they came to help us.

每当我们遇上困难的时候,他们就来帮我们。

Each time he came to town he would visit our school.

他每次进城,总要来看看我们的学校。

Every time I went to his house, he was out. 我每次去他家,他都出去了。

(4)表示持续性或瞬间性,主要连词有:since(自从), ever since(自从), until(直到……才/为止), till(直到……才/为止)等。如:

It is just a week since we arrived here.(It is /was… since…是常用句型)

我们到这儿刚刚一星期。 (主句的动作或状态持续时间较短,不能用ever since)

You have been reading to me ever since James went out.(ever 放在since之前是用来表示说话者强调主句动作或状态持续时间长) 自从James走后你一直在给我朗读。

The big clock which used to strike the hours day and night was damaged during the war and has been silent ever since. ( ever since可以放在句末, since则不能)

这只一向日夜不停打点报时的大钟在战争中损坏了,从此就一直不响了。

My uncle went to Tibet in 1951. He has been living there ever since.

我叔叔于1951年去了西藏,从那以后他一直生活在那里。

Things went well until / till one night an accident happened.

事情一切正常,直到有一天晚上发生了意外。

I knew nothing about it until / till he told me. (但Until he told me, I knew nothing about it. “till”不位于句首。)他告诉我了我才知道。

2.地点状语从句

地点状语从句是由where(在……的地方), wherever(无论哪里)引导的:

Wuhan lies where the Yangtze and the Han River meet. 武汉位于长江和汉水汇合处。

Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者,事竟成。

You’d better make a mark where you have a question.

(这里where引导的从句不是定语从句) 哪儿有问题,你最好在哪儿做个记号。

He would keep in touch with us wherever he was .

他无论在什么地方,总是与我们保持联系。

3.原因状语从句

表示原因的状语从句可以由as(由于), because(因为), since(既然), now (that) (既然), considering that(顾及到), seeing that(由于)等连词引导:

I do it because I like it. 因为我喜欢我才干。(because不能与 so连用)

He couldn’t have seen me, because I was not there.

他不可能见过我,因为当时我不在那儿。

Seeing (that) quite a few people were absent, we decided to put the meeting off.

由于好些人都没到会,我们决定延期开会。

Now that/Since you are all here, let’s try and reach a decision.

既然大家都来了,咱们就设法做出一个决定吧。

As she was ill, she didn’t come to the party. 由于病了,她没来参加晚会。

Considering that they are just beginners, they are doing quite a good job.

考虑到他们才刚刚学做,他们干得算很不错的了。

4.目的状语从句

引导目的状语从句的主要连词有:that, so that(以便), in order that(为了), for fear that(以便), in case(万一)等,从句中常常使用一些情态动词,如:can, could, may, might, should等。如:

Let’s take the front seats (so) that we may see more clearly.

我们坐前排吧,这样我们看得更清楚些。

School was closed early in order that the children might go home ahead of the storm.

早点儿放学是为了让孩子们在暴风雨到来之前回家。

He took the name down for fear that he should forget it.

他把名字写下省得忘了。(该从句中一般用情态动词should+动词原形,或省略should)

Better take more clothes in case the weather is cold. 最好多带些衣服以防天气会冷。

5.结果状语从句

引导结果状语从句的连词有:that, so that(从句中不带情态动词), so…that(如此……以致……), such…that(如此……以致……)等。

What has happened that you all look so excited?

发生了什么事,使你们都显得如此兴奋?

He didn’t plan his time well, so that/so he didn’t finish the work in time.

他没把时间计划好,结果没按时完成这项工作。

We left in such a hurry that we forgot to lock the door. 我们走得匆忙,把门都忘了锁了。(such是形容词,后接名词)

The village is so small that it cannot be shown in the map.

这村子太小,所以这地图上没有。(so是副词,后接形容词或副词)

Jenny is such a clever girl that all the teachers like her very much=Jenny is so clever a girl that…. Jenny是如此聪明的女孩,以至老师们都非常喜欢她。

但是,当名词前有many, much, few, little(少)修饰时,要用so,不能用such。例如:

I have had so many falls that I am black and blue all over.

我摔了许多跤,以至于浑身青一块,紫一块。

He has so few friends that he often feels lonely. 他朋友很少,所以经常感到孤独。

I had so little money then that I couldn’t afford a little present.

我当时囊肿羞涩,连一份小小礼物都买不起。

6.条件状语从句

表示条件的状语从句可以由if(如果), unless(除非), in case(万一), so /as long as(只要), as/ so far as(就……而言), on condition that(条件是……), suppose(假设), supposing(假设)(仅用在问句中)等词或词组引导。一般情况下当主句是将来时的时候,从句要用一般现在时。

As/So long as we don’t lose heart, we’ll find a way to overcome the difficulty.

只要我们不灰心,我们就能找到克服困难的方法。

Send us a message in case you have any difficulty.

万一你有什么困难,请给我们一个信儿。

If you leave at 6 o’clock tomorrow morning, you’d better get to bed now.

如果你明早6点钟走,你最好现在就上床。

We’ll let you use the room on condition that you keep it clean and tidy.

只要你能保持整洁,我们可以让你使用这个房间。

As/So far as I know, he is an expert on DNA. 据我所知,他是一个DNA专家。

He’ll accept the job unless the salary is too low/ if the salary is not too low.

他会接受这项工作的,除非薪水太少/如果薪水不太少的话。

Suppose/Supposing we can’t get enough food, what shall we do?

假设我们弄不到足够的食物,那我们怎么办?

7.方式状语从句

方式状语从句常由as(与……一样), as if(仿佛), as though(仿佛)等词引导:

Do in Rome as the Romans do.入乡随俗。

Leave things as they are.让一切顺其自然。

She stood at the door as if (=as though) she were waiting for someone.

她站在门口,仿佛在等人似的。(由as if或 as though引导的从句中可用虚拟语气)

8.比较状语从句

比较状语从句常由than(比), as(与……一样)等词引导:

It rains more often in Shanghai than in Beijing. 上海下的雨比北京的多。

Our country is as big as the whole of Europe. 我们的国家同整个欧洲一样大。

The result was not as/so good as I had expected. 结果不如我预料的那么好。

The busier he is, the happier he feels. (常见句型)他越忙越开心。

9.让步状语从句

让步状语从句由although(尽管), though(尽管), however(无论怎样), whatever(无论什么), whoever(无论谁), whomever(无论谁), whichever(无论哪个), whenever(无论何时), wherever(无论哪里), whether(是否), no matter (who, what, where, when, etc) (无论……), even if(即使), even though(即使)等词引导。如:

We won’t be discouraged even if (=even though) we fail ten times.

我们就是失败十次也不泄气。

It was an exciting game, though / although no goals were scored.

那是一场精彩的球赛,尽管一个球都没进。(though, although不能与 but连用)

Whether you believe it or not, it’s true.不管你信不信,这是真的。

However (=No matter how) expensive it may be, I’ll take it.

无论它有多贵,我也要买下它。

Don’t let them in, whoever(=no matter who) they are. 不管他们是谁,别让他们进来。

No matter what I say or how I say it, he always thinks I’m wrong.

无论我说什么或怎么说,他总认为是我错。

连词as也可以引导让步状语从句,但从句中要用特殊语序。如:

Young as he is, he knows a lot=Though he is young 或Young though he is, he….

他虽然年轻,但懂得很多。

(though 也有这种用法,可以替换as,但although没有这种用法)

though还可以用作副词,放在句末。如:

It was hard work;; I enjoyed it, though=It was hard work, but I enjoyed it.

那工作很苦,但是我喜欢干。

二、状语从句疑难点

1.as, when, while的区别

as, when, while都表示主、从句的动作或状态同时发生,但三者意义不尽相同。as和when引导的从句既可表示一点时间,也可表示一段时间,从句中的谓语动词既可以是持续性动词,也可以为短暂性动词,经常可以互换使用;while引导的从句通常表示一段时间,从句中宜用持续性动词作谓语。当从句中的谓语动词为持续性动词时,这三者可以通用(前面例句中已有体现),再如:

Mother was worried because little Alice was ill, especially as / when / while father was away in France. 妈妈担心,因为小艾丽思病了,特别是当父亲远在法国的时候。

如果从句和主句要表示一个人的两个动作交替进行或同时完成时,则多用as,可译为“一边......,一边......”。例如:

He looked behind from to time as he went. 他一边走,一边不时地往后看。

As time goes on, it’s getting warmer and warmer..

随着时间的推移,天气变得越来越暖了。

I thought of it just as you opened your mouth.

你一张嘴我就知道你要说什么。(若表示两个短促动作几乎同时发生时,用as的场合多于when.)

当主从句之间表示转折或对比关系时,多用while, 不用as或when。如:

She thought I was talking about her daughter, while in fact, I was talking about my daughter. 她以为我在谈论她女儿,而事实上,我在谈论我的女儿。

如果表示从句的动作在主句的动作“之前”或“之后”发生时,多用when(=after), 不用as或 while。此外,when还含有“at that moment”的意思(=and then),引起的句子不能放在句首,也不能用as, while来替换。例如:

He was about to leave when the telephone rang. 他正要离开,忽然电话铃响了。

We were watching TV when suddenly the lights went out. 我们正在看电视,突然灯灭了。

They had just arrived home when it began to rain. 他们刚到家,天就开始下雨了。

2.until与till及 not…until / till的用法

(1)until和till都可表示“直到......为止”,与持续性动词的肯定式连用。如:

He waited until / till we finished our meal.他一直等到我们吃完饭。

(2)当until和till表示“直到......才......”时,通常与短暂动词的否定式连用,这时,until和till也可用before代替。如:

I didn’t leave until / till / before she came back.直到她回来,我才离开的。

(3) be动词的肯定式和否定式都可以和until或till连用。

(4) until引导的从句可以放在主句之前或主句之后,但till从句一般不放在句首。如:

Until he told me, I knew nothing about it. 他告诉我了我才知道。

当not until位于句首时,主句中的主语、谓语要使用倒装语序:

Not until she came back did I leave.

在强调句型中一般用until,不用till。如:

It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star.

( It is /was … that…是常见的强调句型结构 )直到这位大明星摘下墨镜,我才认出她。

3.有时,the time(当……的时刻), the moment(当……的时刻), by the time(到……

时候为止), next time(下次), the first time(第一次……的时候), the last time(上次……的 时候),immediately(一……就……), instantly(一……就……), directly(一……就……)等词或词组以及hardly /scarcely…when…(刚……就……), no sooner…than…(刚…… 就……)等关联词也可引导表示时间的状语从句。例如:

Be sure to call on us next time you come to town. 下次你进城一定来看我们。

By the time he was fourteen, Einstein had learned advanced mathematics all by himself. (by意为“到......为止”,引起的从句中为一般过去时,主句中用过去完成时)

爱因斯坦到十四岁时就自学完了高等数学。

She rushed into the room immediately / the moment she heard the noise.

她一听到这声音,就冲进房间。

He left me a good impression the first time I met him.

我第一次见他时,他给我留下了好印象。

He had no sooner arrived there than he fell ill.他刚到达那里就生起病来。

He had hardly finished when someone rose to refute his points.

他还没全说完,就有人起来反驳他的论点。

She had scarcely fallen asleep when a knock at the door awakened her.

她刚要睡着,忽然敲门的声音把她惊醒。

当hardly, scarcely, no sooner位于引起的句子的开头时,常用倒装语序。上面的例句可以依次改写成:

No sooner had he arrived there than he fell ill.

Hardly had he finished when someone rose to refute his points.

Scarcely had she fallen asleep when a knock at the door awakened her.

值得一提的是,这三组关联词引起的句子中,前面常用过去完成时,后面用一般过去时。

4.if和unless的用法

一般情况下,unless相当于if…not,可以互换。如:

I won’t let you in unless you show me your pass=I won’t let you in if you don’t show me your pass. 如果你不出示通行证,我就不让你进来。

但是,在下列情况下,两者是有区别的。(1)unless引导真实条件句,if…not可以引导真实条件句或非真实条件句。(2)unless从句中有否定词时,不能换成if…not结构。(3)如果主句描述的是情感或情绪活动方面的内容,if…not结构不能换成unless。如:I’ll be quite glad if she doesn’t come this evening.(她今晚如果不来我很高兴。)(4)unless表示唯一条件,不能用and连接重复使用,if…not则可以。

5.because, since, as, for的区别

(1)在这四个连词中,because语气最强,它引导的从句表达的是未知的新信息,也是该主从复合句中的焦点,一般都置于主句之后(也可以放在主句之前,用逗号隔开)。在回答”why”引导的特殊疑问句时,一般只能用because;在强调结构”It is/was …that …”中,也只能用because。此外,在关联词“not …but …”结构中,也用because引导的原因状语从句。例如:

It’s because he helped you that I’m prepared to help him.正是因为他帮助过你,所以我乐意去帮助他。

- Why didn’t you phone me last night?你昨天夜里为什么没给我打电话?

- Because I didn’t want to disturb you.因为我不想在夜里打扰你。

He decided to give up the chance of going aboard, not because he did not want to but because his wife was ill.他决定放弃出国的机会,不是因为他不想去,而是因为他妻子病了。

(2)since和as语气不如because强,as的语气最弱。他们引导的从句大多置于句首,有时放在主句之后(as从句在复合句中的位置更为灵活),表达的往往是已知信息,即所指的原因是人们已知的客观事实,所以,复合句的重心在主句,不在从句。例如:

Since you have no license, you are not allowed to drive.

因为你没有驾驶执照,所以不允许你开车。

As he was not well enough, I had to go without him.

由于他身体欠佳,我只好不带他去了。

(3)for的语气不及because, since, as强,为并列连词,引导的分句常放在主句之后,从句前通常用逗号,表示说话者为所做的推断和预测提供理由,或对前一分句进行补充和解释。如:

It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet.(for分句表示说话者推断“昨晚天下雨”的理由。此时,because不能替代for,因为地湿不是造成下雨的直接原因。原句可改为:The ground is wet, for / because it rained last night.)

6.so that, so…that, such…that

so that “以便”、“结果”表目的和结果。注意:在从句中有情态动词表目的。无情态动词表结果。

so…that “如此的…以致于”表结果。该结构常见于:

1.so+形/副+that

2.so+形+a(an)+单数名词+that

3.so+many/much+复数名词(不可数名词)+that

such…that “如此的…以致于”表结果。该结构常见于:

1.such+a(an)+形+名词+that 2.such+形+复数名词/不可数名词+that

7.though, although, as,

though, although在句首表“尽管”两者都可以用。但句后不能再用but。

下列情况只能用though:

▲ as though (=as if); even if (=even though) ▲ 在句末表示“然而”

as表示“尽管”,从句的表语、状语等成分要倒装。

8.whatever, however, wherever, whenever

它们是what, how, where, when的强势语气。分别等于:

no matter what, no matter how, no matter where, no matter when

9.有些表示时间、地点、条件、方式或让步等的状语从句中,如果谓语含有动词be,主语又和主句中的主语一致,或者主语是it,常把从句中的主语和谓语的一部分(特别是动词be)省略掉。例如:

Look out for cars when crossing the street (=when you are crossing …).

过街时当心车辆。

She hurriedly left the room as though /if angry (=as though/if she was /were angry…).

她急匆匆地走出屋去,好象很生气的样子。

If possible, I’d like to have two copies if it (=if it is possible,…).

可能的话,我想要两本。

She advised me not to say anything unless asked (=unless I was asked ).

她劝我别说什么,除非有人要我说。

As a young man, he studied law and became a lawyer(=As/ When he was a young man,…).他年轻时就学了法律,并当了律师。

高考与状语从句

状语从句在复合句中作状语,修饰主句中的谓语动词、副词、形容词或整个句子。根据句子的含义,它可表时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、行为方式、比较、让步等。状语从句通常由一个连词引起,有时由一个起连词作用的词组引起。状语从句是中学的重点语法项目,也是高考常考的语法项目之一。除1996年外,每年至少有一题考查状语从句,1998年达到了4个, 1999年6个, 2000年普通高等学校春季招生全国统一考试(北京、安徽卷)中2个。命题热点集中在⑴引导状语从句的连词,⑵状语从句中的时态、语态、语气,⑶与其它从句、句型结合起来考查。

现将1990~2000高考中考查状语从句的部分试题进行分类,供同学们研究学习。

一、考查选用正确的连接词

1. ____the day went on, the weather got worse. (MET90)

A. With B. Since C. While D. As

2. - What was the party like?

- Wonderful. It's years ___ I enjoyed myself so much. (MET93)

A. after B. before C. when D. since

3. Mother was worried because little Alice was ill, especially ___ Father was away in France.

A. as B. that C. during D. if (NMET94)

4. Why do you want a new job ____ you got such a good one already? (NMET98)

A. that B. where C. which D. when

5. After the war, a new school building was put up ____there had once been a theatre.

A. that B. where C. which D. when (NMET97)

6. You will be late ____you leave immediately. (NMET92)

A. unless B. until C. if D. or

7. _____, Mother will wait for him to have dinner together. (NMET97)

A. However late is he B. However he is late

C. However is he late D. However late he is

8. If we work with a strong will, we can overcome any difficulty, ____ great it is. (NMET95)

A. what B. how C. however D. whatever

9. We won't give up ____ we should fail ten times. (93年上海 高考题)

A. even if B. since C. whether D. until

10. She doesn't speak ____her friend, but her written work is excellent. (NMET93)

A. as well as B. so often as C. so much as D. as good as

11. ... She rubs her teeth with her finger 47 she wants to brush her teeth. ...

A. when B. until C. since D. while (NMET95完型)

12. ... He even 36 lost his job as a postman 37 he sent off all the letters when he shoud

have taken them to people's house. ... (NMET 98 完型填空)

A. even if B. so that C. because D. though

13. - I'm going to the post office.

- You're there, can you get me some stamps? (NMET 99)

A. As B. While C. Because D. If

14. ____ you've got a chance, you might as well make full use of it.(NMET 99)

A. Now that B. After C. Although D. As soon as

15. You should make it a rule to leave things ______ you can find them again. (NMET 99)

A. When B. where C. then D. there

16." 32 we must have these noisy trucks on the roads," said Jean Lacrey, a biology student,

"why don't they built a new road that goes through the town?..." (NMET99完形填空)

A. If B. Although C. When D. Unless

17. "Most of them don't live here anyway," he said," they come in for meetings and that , and

the Town Hall is soundproof(隔音),41 they probably don't notice the noise all that much.

It's high time they realized the problem." (NMET 99完形填空)

A. but B. so C. or D. for

18. It was an exciting moment for these football fans this year, ________ for the first time

in years their team won the World Cup.

[2000年普通高等学校春季招生全国统一考试(北京、安徽卷)]

A. that B. while C. which D. when

19. John may phone tonight. I don't want to go out ________ he phones.

[ 2000年普通高等学校春季招生全国统一考试(北京、安徽卷)]

A. as long as B. in order that C. in case D. so that

考查热点在引导时间、地点、条件、让步、比较、原因状语从句的连词上。引导时间状语从句的连词常有:when, whenever, as, while, before, after, since, as soon as, till, until, hardly... when, no sooner...than, every time, the moment等。引导地点状语从句的连词常有:where, wherever。引导条件状语从句的连词常有:if, unless, so(as)long as, in case 等。引导让步状语从句的连词常有:although, though, as, even if(though),no matter (who, what, how, when, where), whatever, whoever, whenever, wherever, however等。引导比较状语从句的连词常有:than, as...as...等。 引导原因状语从句的连词常有:because, as, since等。

要选择正确的连词,需要正确理解句子的含义,准确判断主从句的逻辑关系,同时还要注意区分词义相近的连词、介词和副词。

二、考查状语从句中的时态、语态、语气、语序

20.The new secretary is supposed to report to the manager as soon as she ____. (NMET90)

A. will arrive B. arrives C. is arriving D. is going to arrive

21.The volleyball match will be put off if it ____. (NMET91)

A. will rain B. rains C. rained D. is raining

22. - Can I join your club, Dad?

- You can when you ___ a bit older. (NMET94)

A. get B. will get C. are getting D. will have get

23. Remeber to send me a photo of your son next time you ____ to me. (NMET94)

A. write B. will write C. are writing D. would write

24. If city noises ____from increasing, people ____shout to be heard even at the dinner table 20

years from now. (NMET92)

A. are not kept; will have to B. are not kept; have to

C. do not keep; will have to D. do not keep; have to

25. I need one more stamp before my collection ____. (NMET94)

A. has completed B. completes

C. has been completed D. is completed

在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中, 要用一般现在时代替一般将来时,同时要注意正确的语态。

26. As she ___the newspaper, Granny _____asleep. (NMET95)

A. read, was falling B. was reading, fell

C. was reading, was falling D. read, fell

as, when, while引导的时间状语从句表过去的情况时, 如从句为延续性动词,主句为短暂性动词,那么主句用一般过去时,从句用过去进行时。

27. If it ____for the snow, we ____ the mountain yesterday. (NMET91)

A. were not; could have climbed B. were not; could climb

C. had not been; could have climbed D. had not been; could climb

28. - If he ____, he _____that food.

- Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. (NMET93)

A. was warned; would not take

B. had been warned; would not have taken

C. would be warned; had not taken

D. would have been warned; had not taken

29. You didn't let me drive. If we ___in turn, you _____so tired. (NMET96)

A. drove; didn't get B. drove; would get

C. were driving; wouldn't get D. had driven; wouldn't have got

if引导的从句在非真实条件句中要用虚拟语气。 与过去事实相反的,条件句中用过去完成时,主句中用would have done。

30. We'll have to finish the job, ____ (NMET99).

A. long it takes however. B. it takes however long.

C. long however it takes. D. however long it takes

三、与其它从句、句型结合起来考查

31. It worried her a bit ____her hair was turning grey. (NMET 92)

A. while B. that C. if D. for

32. ____ it with me and I'll see what I can do. (NMET 98)

A. when left B. Leaving C. If you leave D. Leave

33. ... Then the great day came 43 he was to march past the palace in the parade(接受检阅

的队伍). ... (NMET 98 完型填空)

A. where B. since C. when D. till

34. Not until I began to work ____how much time I had wasted. (NMET90)

A. didn't I realize B. did I realize

C.I didn't realize D. I realized

35. Not until all the fish died in the river ____how serious the pollution was. (NMET95)

A. did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized

C. the villagers did realize D. didn't the villagers realize

not...until 引导的时间状语从句如在句首, 主句的语序应为部分倒装。

36. It was not ___she took off her glasses ____I realized she was a famous star.(MET92)

A. when; that B. until; that C. until; when D. when; then

37. It was not until 1920 ___ regular radio broadcasts began.(NMET95)

A. while B. which C. that D. since

这两道题同时考查not...until 引导的时间状语从句与强调句型中的连词that。

1--5 DDADB 6-10 ADCAA 11-15 ACBAB 16-20 ABDCB

21-25 BAAAD 26-30 BCBDB 31-35 BDCBA 36-37 BC

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Unit 13 The mystery of the Moonstone

Step 1 Pre-reading:

1.What do you already know about the story The Moonstone?

Something about the Moonstone

2.How many main characters in the novel? Who are they?

Characters :

Rachel Verinder : a beautiful and wealthy young woman, who lives with her mother and several servants in a fine house in England.

Godfrey: a successful bachelor with many lady admirers, who asks Rachel to marry him .

Franklin Blake: Rachel’s childhood friend.

Dr. Candy: a local doctor who has a quarrel with Franklin about a prescription.

The Indians They follow the Moonstone around the world wait for an opportunity to take it back .

Rosanna: Rachel’s maid who seems fond of Franklin.

Sergeant Cuff: a policeman.

Step 2 Fast reading

Make the students try summing up the main ideas of some paragraphs, then show them some suggested ones.

Para 1 : sth about the moonstone

Para 2: some information about Rachel

Para 3 : the tension and strange things caused by the moonstone

Para 4 : sth happened at Rachel’s birthday party

Para 5 : the miss of the moonstone and Sergeant Cuff’s discovering

Para 6 : the 1st suspect

Para 7 : the 2nd suspect

Para 8 : the 3rd suspect

Para 9 : the 4th suspect

Para 10: Sergeant’s vital clue

Analyse the structure of the passage:

Part 1 ---- Paragraph 1 : How Rachel gets the Moonstone as her present.

Part 2 ---- Paragraph 2: Rachel’s happy life before her eighteenth birthday party.

Part 3 ---- Para 3-4: What happens at the party.

Part 4 ---- Para 5: the Moonstone is missing and Sergeant Cuff is asked to investigate the case.

Part 5 ---- Para 6-9: how Sergeant Cuff analyse the case

Part 6 ---- Para.10 the last paragraph: Sergeant Cuff finds a vital clue of the theft ---- a smear in the wet paint on the door.

Step 3 Careful reading

1.Who gave Rachel the Moonstone ?Why did he give it to her ?Where did her uncle get the Moonstone ?

Rachel’s uncle gave her the Moonstone .He wanted to pass on his bad fortune to her in an act of revenge .He stole the diamond from the temple in India.

2.What happened to the diamond after the birthday party ?

It was gone .

1. Sergeant Cuff thought many people might have stolen the diamond .Who do you think stole the diamond ?

Decide true or false:

1.The man who stole the Moonstone left it to his sister’s daughter because he loved her very much. F

2.Godfrey was under suspicious for stealing the diamond because Rachel refused his marriage . 3.Sergeant Cuff has one vital clue_ the stained garment . F

4.Franklin’s being love with Rachel made Dr Candy angry for Dr Candy loved her deeply. F

5.Rosanna may have taken the diamond to please Franklin who had heavy debts. F

Choose the best answers

1.Why did the man who stole the Moonstone give it to his sister’s daughter ? C

A. Because he wanted to help her

B. Because he had no other relatives

C. Because he wanted to pass on his bad fortune to her

D. The text didn’t tell us

2. Why did Franklin quit smoking ? B

A. Because smoking damaged his health

B. Because Rachel asked him to

C. Because he wanted to please Rachel

D. The servants asked him to

3. Why did Godfrey ask Rachel to marry him ? A

A. Because he wanted to get the Moonstone because of his heavy debt

B. Because he loved her

C. Because he didn’t wish Rachel to marry Franklin

D. Because he wanted to destroy her family

4. The word “ vital ” is closest in meaning to ______ . B

A. deadly B. important C. curious D. clear

5. Why didn’t Rachel answer the detective’s question ? A

A. Because she loved him and she wanted to protect him

B. Because she didn’t see him move the Moonstone

C. She was afraid of being killed by Franklin

D. Because she hated Franklin

6. Who moved the Moonstone at night ? B

A. Dr. Candy B. Franklin C. Godfrey D. Rachel’s mother

7. You can find out the topic of the text simply from ______ . A

A. the title B. the first paragraph

C. the second paragraph D. the last paragraph

8. When did the real story of the Moonstone take place ? B

A. In the 1890s B. In the 1790s C. In the 1840s D. In the 1800s

9. In your opinion , who might kill Godfrey ? D

A. Franklin B. Dr. Candy C. Rachel D. The Indians

10. How many people saw Franklin move the Moonstone to his bedroom ? A

A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. No one

Step 4 Post-reading:

1. Rachel’s birthday party was not a success. Why not?

Several arguments and strange things happened: Godfrey proposed marriage to Rachel and was turned down, Franklin argued with Mr. Candy, and Indian entertainers arrived but gave poor entertainment. The passage also suggests a reason why the party was not successful might be the bad luck of the Moonstone.

1. Why did Sergeant Cuff think Franklin might have stolen the diamond?

He is enthusiastic to help the investigation even though this makes Rechel very angry. Is he covering up hid guilt?

A list about the suspects and reasons :

Suspects

Reasons for Suspicion

The Indians

They followed the Moonstone around the world waiting for an opportunity to take it back to India .

Godfrey

He might have stolen the Moonstone as revenge for loss of face ,because Rachel turned down his proposal of marriage .

Dr Candy

As with Godfrey, he lost face because of the quarrelling with Franklin.

Rachel

Perhaps she had debts that needed to be paid .

Rosanna

She might have taken the diamond either from force of habit ,for she was a thief before Rachel’s mother gave her a job or cause a disagreement between Rachel and Franklin

Franklin

He gave the detective assistance.His enthusiasm was the reason why he was suspected ,because it was not his business.

Step 5 What are the main clue of the story?

The detective story develops completely following the structure: the appearance of the Moonstone (receiving from Rachel’s uncle) ---- the loss of the Moonstone ---- the investigation of the Moonstone (and the person who might have stolen it )---- discovery of the truths or facts.

Integrating Skills Solving the mystery of the moonstone

Step 1 Lead-in

In reading part, sergeant cuff had several suspects and it was difficult for him to make certain who was the theft. For the sake of the clue mentioned by cuff, can you guess the real theft?

Scan the passage and make out how the story develops:

Part 1---- Paras 1-2: how puzzled Sergeant Cuff was at the case before he knew the truth.

Part 2---- Paras3-7: the things that happened after the diamond had been stolen.

Part 3----Paras 8-9: the result of the case: Sergeant Cuff discovered the thief.

Part 4----: the feeling and thoughts Sergeant Cuff has about the case.

Step 2 Read the passage and finish the exercise

Get the students to read the passage and ask some questions:

1.Who was it that wrote the passage? _______

A Rachel B Rosanna C Franklin D the sergeant

2. Why did Rachel cancel the wedding after her accepting Godfrey? Because _____

A Rachel never loved him that much.

B Rachel sensed Godfrey loved her great wealth extremely. C The Indians attacked Godfrey.

2. Why did the author say the case of the moonstone was most unusual?______

A It is difficult to distinguish the many characters referred to in the text.

B Because of there being no effective clues

C Because there was the clue only, but it was hard to find the person leaving it behind.

3. According to the text, who made the sergeant not suspect Franklin any more?______

A Rachel and Rosanna B Dr. Candy C Franklin himself and Dr. Candy

4. We are told who the real theft was.__________

A Rachel and Franklin B the Indians C Godfrey D. Sergeant Cuff

5.Which one is correct in the following?

A Godfrey bought the moonstone at a high price.

B Sergeant Cuff didn’t know the reason for Godfrey’s death so he wasn’t a professional detective.

C The moonstone was gone without any cause at last.

D The passage is about how the sergeant finished the case of the moonstone.

广州市真光中学

《基础教育发展改革纲要》把迅速提高青少年信息素养作为渗透整个素质教育的核心要素。英语基本能力、信息意识与能力已经成为当代公民的必备素质。① 基础教育阶段英语课程的总体目标是培养学生的综合语言运用能力,综合语言运用能力的形成必须通过大量的听说读写的实践活动来实现。课堂中,教师要创设尽可能贴近学生实际生活的活动内容和形式,激发学生参与活动的兴趣。

很多英语老师上课后,通常给学生3---5分钟时间做“Free Talk” (or Daily Report, Duty Report), 把这一活动作为训练学生听说能力,增加学生课外知识的课堂有效环节。并以此作为切入口,自然导入本节课的内容。传统的“Free Talk”,主要由单个学生作口头报告或演讲,形式单调,学生之间缺乏互动。其效果很随机,好坏完全取决于汇报者的口语表达能力、汇报内容的难易及有趣程度。有时,这种“Free Talk”会流于形式,有的老师干脆省却这一活动。事实上如果在“Free Talk”中引进多媒体技术,不仅能创设生动、有趣、直观的英语听说情景,刺激学生说英语的兴趣,而且能有效地拓展学生课外知识,增进学生之间、师生之间互动,达到促使学生积极参与课堂活动的目的。

课堂上的“Free Talk”我采取学生以小组合作形式演示制作的多媒体课件。

一、 主要特点和意义:

1、小组合作。学生组成4---6人小组开展活动,给学生提供交流、合作和互相学习的机会,培养学生与人交际的能力和合作的精神。

2、“Free(开放性)”。“Free Talk”的题材、内容学生可自由选择;来源和表现形式可自由选择;评价过程可自由发表意见。给学生充分表现自己的空间,发挥特长、张扬个性、感受成功。

3、充分运用多媒体课件。学生在演示过程中利用计算机多媒体技术提供图、文、声并茂的情景,丰富了内容的呈现形式,调动了学生参与课堂活动的兴趣。

二、主要过程包括:准备---演示---评价

1、准备。我向学生介绍Free Talk的特点、操作要求、评价标准等,公布小组名单、顺序,明确实施的时间(每星期的一、三、五)。具体要求如下:题目、内容自定,演示形式自定,人员限定4---6人(由老师采取异质分组),时间3---5分钟。要求内容健康、积极、有意义。强调:课件的内容可自制或引用,如引用要注明出处,不能完全从网上下载。语言材料的要点必须呈现出来。演讲者(speaker or reporter)语音、语调清晰、自然,表达清楚、准确,语言信息量较大,无明显语法错误。学生、教师按以上要求作评价,以此作为平时成绩的参照。

2、演示。演示过程要能体现小组合作精神,体现每个成员的参与价值,要能展现小组的实际水平和特长,要能与其他小组的成员甚至教师产生互动。

3、评价。

(1)评价方式:学生小组自评、他评和师评相结合,描述性评价与量性评价相结合。

(2)评价细则:口语表达-演示者表现-演示内容-合作互动(Speech-Reporter-Content-Cooperation)

(附另页)

(3)评价等级:Perfect★★★★★,Very good ★★★★,

Not bad ★★★,Just so-so ★★,Bad★

(4)成果展示评价表

Items Self-assessment Others’ assessment Teacher’s assessment

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

General Assessment:

Perfect★★★★★,Very good ★★★★,Not bad ★★★,

Just so-so ★★,Bad★

三、教学策略:

著名心理学家皮亚杰认为:认识起源于活动,认识是从活动开始的,活动在学生的任知情感和个别行为发展中起着重要的作用。根据第二语言习得中的“相互作用理论”(interaction view)和教育学中的“合作理论”,语言教学内容的组织可以通过交流和互动的模式进行。通过师生和生生的互动达成共同的学习目标。学习者是外语教学中的内因,外语教学必须围绕学生这个主体而展开,教师的作用在于为学生提供宽松的学习环境,创设良好的自由学习条件,为各种层次的学生创设机会参与课堂活动,并不断引导学生向更高的水平发展。在学习中采用合作探究,通过小组讨论与协助,发挥了自主和合作学习的优势,给予学生更多的探求、争论的时间和机会。既使学生的个性得到张扬,思维(尤其是创造性思维)得以培养,又培养了组员之间的互相学习和协作精神。在这样的氛围中学习,学生才会有真正的学习热情。英语课堂教学中采用小组合作,为学生提供了大量运用语言的机会,对提高学生运用语言进行交际的能力,自学能力和创新能力有着巨大的优越性。

综合语言运用能力的形成建立在学生语言技能、语言知识、情感态度、学习策略和文化意识等素养整体发展的基础上。② 现行的英语课程标准注重学生跨文化意识的培养,学习过程中通过比较了解不同文化的差异,拓展视野,提高对文化差异的敏感性和鉴赏力,从而提高跨文化交际能力。教学中教师要尽量拓展文化知识的内容和范围,突出英语的工具功能,加强学科之间的相互渗透和联系,设计出能促进学生综合素质发展的课堂活动。在当今的信息社会,知识经济的时代,学生获取知识的途径很开阔、多样,他们对信息的量及知识的呈现形式有较高的要求。课堂教学中采用多媒体课件,能较好地满足学生这两方面的要求。学生参与合作制作多媒体课件的活动更能促进实践能力的提高,包括汲取加工信息的能力、沟通合作的能力、实践操作的能力、评价反思的能力等。中学英语课堂采用多媒体“Free Talk”给学生搭建了交换知识、表现自我的平台。

四、遵循的原则

1、尊重学生独特的感受和理解,因为它们是学生通过亲身体验、感受获得的,应该珍惜。

2、强调学生间的合作与交流,生生互动、取长补短。

3、强调英语的工具功能,把英语作为获取知识、开拓视野的工具,注重英语与其他学科的相互融合和渗透。

4、评价过程中,教师充分倾听学生的意见,给学生自由发言的时间、空间。

5、评价结果的开放性,学生对自己的评价结果不满意,可以据理力争或与老师交涉,甚至另做一个课件代替,重新参与评价。

五、基本理念:这种“Free Talk”的实施充分体现了《英语课程标准》(实验稿)的基本理念。

1、面向全体学生,注重素质教育

“Free Talk”的以上特点,能鼓励不同层次的学生积极参与小组活动,充分投入到自己扮演的角色中,在小组成员的互动中疏通英语信息的输入输出途径,使每一个成员的综合语言运用能力都得到发展。学生制作课件的过程就是学会收集处理信息、学会自主获取新知识、学会分析解决问题、学会交流合作的过程。学生获得的不仅是语言能力的发展,而且是实践能力、创新能力乃至情感态度人文素养的提高。

2、突出学生主体,尊重个体差异

中学生具备一定的学习能力,具有一定的综合学科的知识及运用现代信息技术的能力。学生的思维活跃、个性化很强、兴趣很广、对信息量的要求高,渴望表现自己。以课件展示:“Free Talk”能极大地满足学生对信息量的要求,充分刺激学生的视听感官,提高学习的效果。对课件进行评价更为学生搭建了展示自己的平台,学生各抒己见、畅所欲言,甚至针锋相对、互不相让,不仅培养了语言运用能力,而且展现了智慧,张扬了个性。

针对学生在认知基础、兴趣爱好、学习能力等方面的差异,我给学生提供充分发展的自由空间:学生根据自己的实际情况选题并可选择完成任务的时间。有的小组由于某些原因不能按原计划完成任务,可向老师提出申请要求推迟,老师适时提供指导。

3、采用活动途径,提倡体验和参与

学生参与制作“Free Talk”的过程不仅是知识增长的过程,同时也是身心和人格全面发展的过程.学生在实践中要面对各种疑问、困难、矛盾,有助于形成不怕困难、积极向上的良好心理素质。同时,通过不同文化间的比较和分析,培养跨文化的交际意识,培养学生开放、包容的性格和与人交往合作的精神。

六、实施效果

1、很强的动手能力。学生制作课件的质量非常高,画面设计有特色,音像优美,创意新颖,构思巧妙,选材能引起学生共鸣,能触发学生的情感。

2、题材、内容的丰富性。学生的知识面、兴趣很广,涉及的题材包括:社会生活、政治经济、文娱体育、社会科学、名人逸事、身边琐事等,极大地拓展了学生的课外知识,提高了人文素养。

3、来源、表现形式的多样性。学生的信息来自互联网、广播电视、书刊杂志、道听旁说等,采用视听、读、演、唱、玩、做等形式展现自己的语言运用能力,生动有趣。

4、评价过程的互动性。小组自评、他评和师评各占评价结果的1/3,当三方出现较大的差距时,都据理陈辞,力争说服他方,观点新颖,言辞精辟,场面精彩纷呈,充分发挥了师生、生生互动的作用。

七、实施中需要注意的地方

1、操作过程要注意把握时间。“Free Talk”从演示到评价的结束不超出10分钟,课件演示时间超过5分钟,就会导致评价的不充分,影响其客观性。课件制作需预先准备,而评价特别是他评则锻炼了学生的临场机智和用英语进行交际的能力,学生各抒己见往往能产生思维的碰撞,激发出智慧的花,评价的意义重大。

2、注意发挥评价的导向功能。教师的评价要能引导学生重视知识以外的综合素质的发展,特别是创新、合作、探究能力及情感态度、价值感的发展,关注学生在原有基础上取得的进步,及时给予鼓励,以评价促发展。

3、充分合理地利用多媒体课件。运用多媒体课件的宗旨是优化课堂教学,如果学生基于他们的内容和表现形式(如戏剧表演)不运用多媒体课件,但能达到相同的效果,评价不应受此影响;相反,如果滥用媒体造成了资源的浪费,评价要受到影响并给予指正。教师要能充分发掘学生课件的内涵,尽可能找出与课本学习内容有联系,内容相关的地方,及时作为课文教学的切入口,为以后的课堂教学创设了生动、有趣的情景。

这种“Free Talk”不仅有“声”而且有“色”,融图文声为一体,体现了较高的展示力和交互性,极大地活跃了课堂气氛,学生参与课堂活动的兴趣及积极性大大提高,实现学生主动学习,最终达到发展综合语言运用能力、提高人文素养、增强实践能力、培养创新精神的目的。③

引文注释与参考文献

1、①摘录于 英语课程标准研制组编写: 《英语课程标准(实验稿)解读》, 北京师范大学出版社,

2002年5月第一版 P49。

2、②摘录于 中华人民共和国教育部制订: 《英语课程标准(实验稿)》, 北京师范大学出版社,

2001年7月第一版 P6。

3、③摘录于 中华人民共和国教育部制订: 《英语课程标准(实验稿)》, 北京师范大学出版社,

2001年7月第一版 P2。

4、朱慕菊主编:《走进新课程:与课程实施者对话》,北京师范大学出版社,

2002年6月第一版

附页

Items of Evaluation on Students' Presentation(学生课件评价细则)

------Speech

--correct grammar

--appropriate length

--reasonable explanation

-------Reporter

--good pronunciation and intonation

--speaking loud / clearly

--appropriate behaviors during presentation (eye contact, body language,etc)

------Content

--new or sharp ideas

--interesting and sufficient information

--quality of powerpoint

------Cooperation

--team-work in discussion, during the research & performance

--interaction with other groups(trying to get advice or approval from other groups)

广州市真光中学(510380) 赖迎

e-mail:Harmonylail@msn.com

cell phone:020-33180993 or 13710575930

作者简介:

赖迎,女,真光中学英语首席教师。连续几年带高三毕业班都取得了良好的成绩, 并积累了丰富的教育教学经验. 能根据学生特点因材施教,充分调动学生学习的主动性和积极性, 注重学生学法的指导,培养学生的学习能力。善于发挥师生和生生互动作用,创设良好的学习氛围,让学生主动参与课堂活动,并引导学生向更高水平发展,从而培养学生的创新思维及互相协作精神。并使学生在学习中获得思想素质的教育。

A Revision About Attributive Clause

定语从句要点回顾

I 定语从句的定义

在复合句中,修饰名词或者代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句所修饰的词叫做先行词。如在课本中,(a)The man who lives next to us sells vegetable. (b) You must do everything that I can do. 斜体部分是先行词。黑体部分是定语从句。第一句中定语从句修饰的是“the man ”这个名词,而在第二句当中修饰的是“everything”这个代词。其中,“who”和“that”叫做关系代词。应到定语从句的词有关系代词that, which, who, whom, whose 和关系副词where, when, why. 同时“as”也经常充当关系代词,引导定语从句。

II 关系代词that, which, who(whom)引导的定语从句(基本例句见课本)

1,其中that, who(whom),都可以指人,那么他们在指人时有什么区别呢。[本条记忆技巧:用who 不用 that 的情况 “there be” “one,ones,anyone,nobody, those ” 被分割。***那里有(there)很多万(one)被那些人(those)分割。]

<1>先行词为those, one, anyone, nobody 等词时,用who不用that,例如:The one who knows me well is Tom.

<2>在分隔型定语从句中,若先行词是人,用 who不用that, 例:

A new teacher will come who will teach you German.

在本句中,先行词“teacher”和修饰限定它的从句 “who will teach you German ” 分离,所以我们用 who 不用 that。

<3>先行词为“there be”结构的主语时,例如

There is a man who wants to see you.

在本句子当中a man是There is a man 这句当中的主语,所以用who不用that

2其中,that 和 which 都可以指物,它们在指物时的区别:

(1) 用that不用which

<1>先行词前有形容词最高级,序数词,all, every, little, no, any, much, the only, the very, the last 等修饰时,例如:

I have read all the books that you gave me.

<2>先行词为all, few, nothing, everything, little, much 等不定代词时:

He did all that he could do to help us.

<3>主语以who或which开头时

Who is the man that just called you just now?

<4>关系代词在从句中做表语时

China is not the country that is was.

<5>既指人又指物时

He talked about the teachers and schools that he had visited.

2, 先行词表示物时, 用which不用that 的情况

<1> 引导非限制性定语从句时,例如:

She heard a terrible noise, which brought her heart to her mouth.

<2>当关系代词做介词宾语时,例如:

He wrote a book in which he could learn about his life.

在上一例句中,引导词 “which”作了介词 “in”的宾语,所以不可以用 “that”代替.

III由whose, when, where why 等引导的定语从句可参考课本内容。这里简单介绍一下非限制性定语从句和限制性定语从句。非限制性定语从句,从意义上来说,是对主语的补充说明,从结构上来看,先行词和定语从句之间用逗号隔开,He makes great progress in his English learning which makes his mother very happy.

IV 关于as

(1) 在一些结构,如“such …as” “the same…as” “as…as”等结构中,定语从句的引导词经常要用到as,例如

This is not such a book as I expected.

(2) the same as和the same that 的区别。例句:

This is the same tool as I used last time.

This is the same tool that I used last time.

在例句中,第一句的意思是这个工具和我上次用的一样,但是第二句的意思是这就是我上次用的工具

(3) as 和which 的比较

相同点:两者都可以引导非限制性定语从句,先行词都可以是整个句子,都可以在从句中做主语,宾语表语。

不同点<1>as 引导的从句可以放在句首和句尾,而which 引导的从句只可放在句尾。

<2>另外which 还有正如、正象的意思。

As Marx pointed out, labor created man himself.

当先行词,虽然表示时间地点,但是引导词在从句中不是做状语时,而是做宾语时,不能用when, where引导,而只能用that, which 等引导。比较以下两个句字:

I will never forget the days when I first went to Beijing .

I will never forget the days that (which) we spent together.

SEFC Book II Unit 4 A garden of poems

一、教学内容分析

本单元的中心话题是“英国诗歌”,具体涉及英文诗歌的种类、英国诗人、英文诗歌

的发展史等。语言技能和语言知识几乎都是围绕介绍“英文诗歌”这一中心话题设计展开的。

“热身”(Warming up)部分设计了五个问题让学生交流对英文诗歌的了解,并就个人对诗歌的喜好进行讨论。目的是呈现本单元的中心话题帮助学生在大脑中形成一个有关“诗歌”的信息包,并引入与中心话题相关的部分词汇和句型。

“听力”(Listening) 部分是一段图书管理员和一名想借阅诗歌书籍的学生之间的对话。要求学生在听的基础上完成有关对话大意和细节的选择和问题,并说明有关诗歌集不同的分类方法。这一设计一方面用于训练学生通过听觉获取信息的能力(泛听和精听的技能);另一方面也有助于开拓学生的视野、提高学生对诗歌集分类方法的了解程度,以达到帮助他们如何开始选择诗歌的阅读。该部分的设计同时也为下一步的语言输出“口语”做准备。

“口语”(Speaking) 部分提供了介绍诗歌的时期、风格种类、诗人和诗歌表达的各种情感以及表达观点和喜好的常用词语,要求学生以分组讨论活动形式按照例子以及提供的句型和要求进行关于诗歌的讨论。这一设计既更进一步地促进了学生对有关诗歌知识的学习,又训练了学生在陈述观点的过程中运用有关表达个人意图的用语的能力。

“读前”(Pre-reading)部分首先要求学生谈谈中国的诗人和中国诗歌以及对诗歌的总体了解,然后要求学生推测文章中将会涉及到哪些方面,并在详细阅读课文之后评估自己的预期猜测是否准确。这有利于训练学生的逻辑思维,同时也为下一步的“阅读”做好准备。

“阅读”(Reading)部分是一篇介绍性的文字,主要介绍英文诗歌各个发展阶段的不同特点以及有代表性的诗人,并通过和我国历史上的著名诗人的比较,帮助学生消除对英文诗歌的陌生感,引导他们对该主题的入门,使之理解国外诗歌的特点,以提高他们对诗歌的鉴赏能力。

“读后”(Post-reading)部分设计了六个问题。题一考查对文章内容的理解、题二考查对代词的掌握、题三考查对文章脉络的了解、题四至题六较之前三题更为开放,要求学生在深入理解课文的基础上,就“诗歌”这一话题表达自己的观点。

“语言学习”(Language study)分词汇和语法两部分。词汇部分提供了两个习题,题一考查学生对阅读文章中出现的部分单词的掌握,而题二则为和本单元中心话题相关的诗歌押韵词概念的理解和运用。语法项目延续本册教材的第二、三两个单元的内容――继续介绍过去分词在句子中的功能。本单元为过去分词作状语的练习,教材通过分类、句型改写等练习巩固对过去分词作状语的认识和掌握。

“综合技能”(Integrating skills)在阅读一篇表达了个人对诗和歌曲强烈的喜爱之情的文章的基础上要求学生学习欣赏两首诗(歌词),并要求写出对英语诗歌的评论。这一设计有利于激发学生的想象力,锻炼其文学鉴赏能力和写作能力。

“学习建议”(Tips)部分提供了选择诗歌阅读以及收集诗歌的方法。

“复习要点”(Checkpoint)部分要求学生就本单元的语法重点和词汇自主归纳,以使学生能更系统地认识本单元的语言知识。

二、教学重点和难点

(一) 重点

1、词汇:重点单词如poem, poet, intention, recite, mad, pattern, sort, fantasy, loneliness, sadness, glory, absence, atmosphere, introduction, translate, translation, extraordinary, idiom, recommend, contribute等。短语如put…together, play with, call up, stand out, light up, come into being, send for, contribute to, remind sb. of 等。

2、语法:过去分词作状语

3、功能:表达意图的句型

(二) 难点

1、如何使用并区分过去分词在句子中作定语、表语、宾补以及状语

2、如何理解并能初步欣赏英文诗歌

3、如何进行英文诗歌评论的写作

三、教学目标

(一)语言知识

1、话题:English poetry

2、功能:Expressing intention(见教材P27Speaking部分的表格)

3、词汇:(见教学重点)

4、语法:The Past Participle used as Adverbial

(二)语言技能

1、听:听懂一段图书管理员和一名想借阅诗歌书籍的学生之间的对话。要求学生在听的时候能抓住和话题相关的关键词并概括大意,提高“泛听”技能;在此基础上吸收并处理相应的细节信息,形成“精听”技能。

2、说:要求学生用表达意图的句型进行关于诗歌的讨论。

3、读:通过篇章English Poetry的阅读、理清文章的脉络,继续训练各种阅读微技能。

4、写:通过本单元的各项语言输入、形成对英文诗歌的基本概念,并能书写简单的诗歌评论。

(三)情感态度和文化意识

1、通过比较国内外不同时期不同风格的著名诗歌和诗人,接受并认识英文诗歌的美

2、理解诗歌和历史、现实生活的联系,提高英语语言的鉴赏能力和修养

四、教材处理

本单元的话题“英文诗歌”对于高中学生而言,较为抽象。依据新课程标准、结合本单元的话题特点,教师在处理教材的任务设置时应运用建构主义“脚手架教学”的方法,而在调动学生积极参与任务时则应遵照多元智能理论。

教材的“读前”提到了中国诗人和中国诗歌、“综合技能”部分的阅读文章的内容则联系诗歌和歌曲。根据认知的一般规律,话题的导入应由中国的诗歌诗人――英文歌曲――英文诗歌诗人。根据教材内容、结构特点和教学时间,本单元拟用7个课时完成。具体分配如下:

Period 1: Warming up(P25)& Reading passage “ Songs and Poems” from Integrating skills(P31)

Period 2: Listening & Speaking

Period 3-4: Reading

Period 5: Language study

Period 6: Integrating skills(Writing)

Period 7: English Poem Festival

五、教学设计

Period 1 Warming up

Step 1: Lead in

1. Remind the students famous Chinese poems and Chinese poets. Get them to name some famous Chinese poets and recite some famous poems.

2. Do you like poems? Which Chinese poet/ poem do you like best? Why?(romantic, form of poems, special patterns of rhythm and rhyme, use surprising images, absence of rhyme, nature poem, style and atmosphere)

3. What words will you need to talk about poets and poetry?

4. Do you know any English poet/ poem? Can you recite any?

5. What about English songs? Do you often sing English songs? (Get some individuals to sing part of their favourite English songs and make them realize that different songs express different feelings.)

6. Is there any connection between English songs and English poems?

Step 2: Reading

SBP31, Reading passage “ Songs and Poems”.

I. While reading:

1. According to the writer, when do we sing?

2. How do we feel about a good song?

3. What does the writer think of good songs?

4. Who gave the writer some advice on how to enjoy poetry?

5. What was the advice?

6. How did the writer learn to enjoy the poem?

II. Post-reading

1. Do songs and poems have something in common? If yes, what are they?(a.the image in the passage: They are like bright and warm colours in the middle of grey and shades.b. Both of them show feelings, rhythms, rhymes and the sounds of the words.)

2. How can we learn to enjoy the poems?( We should start with small poems.)

Step 3: Limericks

SBP25, read and enjoy the two limericks.

1. What is a limerick?

2. Do you find any sounds that sound the same?(Corfu, Peru, through, trains, aeroplanes.)

3. Is there a pattern in the poem? What’s the pattern of these two limericks? (aabba)

Step 4: Extension

Limerick is a type of English poems. There are many types of English types. What other types of English poems do you know? Who are the typical poets? (Mention some of the poets in SBP26 Speaking to see how much the students have already known about it.)

Homework:1. Surf the Internet to find the introduction to some famous English poets like Keats and Wordsworth (P26 Speaking).

2. Learn to sing the song “Right Here Waiting” or one English song as they like. ( Tell them they will be asked to sing in the following periods while studying this unit.)

Period 2 Listening & Speaking

Step 1: Warming up

1. Greetings

2. Get the students to exchange the information they have got about famous poets with their partners first. Get some individuals to report to the class.

3. Get one or two individuals to sing their favourite English song.

Step 2 Listening

SBP25, Listening.

1. After the first listening, do Exercise 1. ( Read the instructions and make sure they know all the words listed and remind them of the librarian’s words from the tape.)

2. After the second listening, finish the following multiple choice.

Listen to the tape and choose the correct answer.

1. What is the dialogue about? ( )

A. A student is asking the librarian for advice on how he can choose poems to read.

B. A student is asking his teacher about how to choose poems to read.

C. A boy is asking his mother about how to choose poems to read.

2. What kind of book is A Garden of Poems? ( )

A. A collection of poems. B. a book of a garden. C. Poems about a garden.

3. How should you read a book such as 1001 Songs and Poems in English? We should_________. ( )

A. read all the poems carefully

B. just look at the title, the topic or the first or last lines

C. only read those which you like

4. Which topic for poetry does the student like? ( )

A. nature B. animals C. paintings

5. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.

a. A Garden of Poems and 1001 Songs and Poems in English are sorted by names. ( )

b. English Poems of the Early Seventeenth Century is sorted by period of time. ( )

c. Poetry between the World Wars and the Earth is Painted Green are sorted by topic.

Suggested answers: 1-4 AACA 5. TTF

Step 3:Speaking

I.Pre-speaking

1. When did Du Fu/ Li Bai/ George Gordon Byron live?

2. What’s the topic of his/her poems?

3. What special feelings does his/her poem show?

4. Are you interested in his/her poems?

5. Which one do you want to read?

6. Listen to the example dialogue and tell what the speaker’s favorite poem is and why.

7. Collect the useful expressions used to talk about intention from the class.

II. While-speaking

Get them to talk about their tastes and preferences of poems and poets, using the expressions in the box of P27.

Homework: 1. Write a short passage based on Listening and Speaking in the class to show their

tastes of poems or tell how much you have known about English poetry so far.

2. Choose a short poem from the library or the Internet and recite it, preparing to act it out in the following periods while studying this unit.

Period 3-4 Reading

Step 1: Warming up

1. Greetings.

2. Get some individuals to sing a song or recite a poem they have chosen.

3. Invite some individuals to talk about their tastes of poems.

Step 2: Pre-reading

SB P27, focus on Task 3. Get them to accomplish in pairs.

Step 3: Reading

1. Read for the main idea.

1) Summarize the main idea of each paragraph.

Para.1: Why we read poetry

Para.2: Chinese poets and poetry

Para.3: Early English poets

Para.4: The 19th century English poets

Para.5: Modern English poets

Para.6: The introduction of English poetry into China

Para.7: Why more people are interested in English poetry

2) Choose the main idea of the passage. ( A )

A. Poetry is a good bridge to connect the East with the West.

B. Different periods of English poems.

C. Modern poems of English.

D. Differences between Chinese and English poetry.

2. Read for the detailed information. ( SB P28 Post-reading Task 1-2.)

Step 4: Listening

Listen to the tape with these tasks:

1. Post-reading Task 3. (SB P29.)

2. Choose the best answer after listening.

1) From the passage, we got the idea(s):______________.

A. poetry belongs to all human beings

B. poetry plays with sounds, words and grammar

C. poetry often follows special patterns of rhythm and rhyme

D. all of the above

2) From the passage, we can infer that _____________.

A. we’d better read poems in English

B. translated poems can’t express exact meaning of original poems

C. there is no advantage of reading English poetry in Chinese translation

D. Chinese translation poems are as good as English poems

Step 5: Comparison

Compare a famous Chinese poem by Chao Zhi with its English version. ( SB P29 Post-reading Task 4.)

七步诗

曹植

煮豆燃豆箕,

豆在釜中泣;

“本是同根生,

相煎何太急?”

They were boiling beans on a beanstalk fire,

Came a plaintive voice from the pot,

“ Oh, why since we sprang from the self-same root,

Should you kill me with anger hot?”

【Conclusion: By using different language, a poem loses a lot of its charm ( beauty ) and spirit. The rhythm and rhyme, the figures of speech, etc. are different from the original work.】

Step 6: Reflective thinking

1. SB P29 Post-reading 5-6.

2. Where does poetry come from? What roles does it play in our life?

3. What characteristics are English poetry? What about Chinese poetry?

Homework: 1. Surf the Internet and read some introduction of your favourite poet(s) and one of their best poems.

2. Read the passage again and pick out 10 words that you like best or you think they are the most useful in the passage and learn them by heart.

3. Workbook Listening. (SB P102)

Period 5 Language study

Step 1: Warming up

1. Greetings.

2. Get some individuals to sing a song or recite a poem they have chosen.

Step 2: Word study

I. Word study Part 1.

1. Lead-in: What words have you picked out from the passage? ( Collect their choices and put those that are related to Word study Part 1 on the blackboard. )

2. Individual work: Fill in the blank with words.

3. Class work: Those who have finished the task can check the answers together, telling each other why they choose the words, or what helps them decide the answer.

II. Word study Part 2.

1. Lead-in: Words or lines of poetry end with the same sound, including a vowel, are what we call rhyme. Can you give us some words that rhyme?

2. Pair work: One reads the words from the first box, the other gives the word which rhymes.

3. Class work: Read the words pair by pair according to the rhyme.

Step 3: Grammar

1. Lead-in questions: We know there are many words that rhyme in the poem. Do all the poems rhyme? (No. ) Who are the most famous poet(s) for the absence of rhyme ? If a poem is translated into another language, is it still the same poem?

2. Study the following two sentences on the blackboard based on the lead-in questions by asking the students to put them into Chinese and say them another way .

1) Once published, his work became famous for the absence of rhyme at the end of each line.

2) No matter how well translated, something of the spirit of the original work is lost.

【Conclusion】The past participle is used as adverbial in the sentence. It can be changed into the adverbial clause, which has the same meaning.

3. Practice: Part 1-3. (Hold a competition to make the practice interesting among four groups.-Which group can manage the tasks in the least time with the fewest mistakes?)

Homework: 1. Workbook P104-105 Grammar.

2. Can you summarize the usage of the past participle after finishing Unit 2-4?

3. Write a short passage with 10 words that you have chosen, preparing to tell your story next lesson.

Period 6 Integrating skills

Step 1: Warming up

1. Greetings

2. Some individuals tell their stories loudly to the whole class.

3. Get some individuals to sing a song or recite a poem they have chosen.

Step 2: Preparation for writing

I. Read the poem Silent in the house and discuss the following questions in groups.

1. What is the poem about?

2. What images do you see in your mind?

3. What feelings does the poem give to you?

4. What do you think of the poem? (Do you like it? Why? )

Silent in the house

By Emily Bronte

Come, the wind may never again

Blow as now it blows for us;

And the stars may never again

shine as now they shine;

Long before October returns,

Seas of blood will have parted us;

And you must crush the love in your heart,

and I the love in mine.

II. While collecting their answers to the above questions, write down the useful expressions that can be used to write a poem review on the blackboard. These will be something like the following: The poem is The language it used is sounds as if…/ It is not easy to understand…/ remind me of …/ a very good image to give us the feeling that…/ Although the poem is short, it is very moving. / I like the poem because …

III. Conclusions:

1. the outline of a poem review( SBP32 Part 2.)

2. some useful expressions that can be used to write a poem review ( See the above.)

Step 3: Writing

1. Get them to discuss in pairs how to write a poem review on Silent in the house.

2. Start writing the poem review individually.

3. Show the sample writing and read it through with the class if necessary.

Sample writing:

About Silent in the house, by Emily Bronte

The poem called Silent in the house by Emily Bronte is very short and the language it used is very simple. The first four lines of the poem are an invitation to go out together and enjoy time spent together. It sounds as if it may be the last time together in the evening, enjoying the mild weather and looking at the stars. Within a year, long before it is October again, the two lovers in the poem will be parted forever. It is not easy to understand what it means that seas of blood will part them, but I think one of them will get married to someone else. Because of that, they must both stop loving each other, and each must destroy the love in their hearts.

The idea that they will be separated by “ seas of blood” reminds me of Richard Marx’s song in which the lovers are “oceans apart”. The sea is a very good image to give you the feeling that two lovers cannot reach each other. To use the word “ crush” instead of “destroy” is a good choice, because crush gives you the feeling that the love in their hearts can be broken by pushing it away.

Although the poem is short, it is very moving. It is a very beautiful way to express the sadness when two lovers must part because they cannot stay together. I like the poem because it is very quiet. It seems as if the poem wants to be like a beautiful memory.

Homework: 1.Write a review on the poem they have chosen to recite.

2. Choose a program that has something to do with this unit, rehearse it in pairs, groups or individually, and prepare to act it on in the English Poem Festival.

Period 7: English Poem Festival(英语诗歌节活动方案)

一.活动时间:学完本单元后

二.活动目的:

1.使学生能在学习本单元有关诗歌的篇章之后,更进一步熟悉诗歌这个文学体裁并提高他们诗歌鉴赏的兴趣和能力

2.使学生能在学习本单元有关诗歌、歌曲以及诗评的描述方式的基础上,充分展现自我才能,以激发其对英语学习更大的兴趣

三.活动形式:分阶段准备、集中表演

1.个人、小组活动:完成本单元每个课时学习之后与“英语诗歌节”有关的任务

2.小组活动(每小组3―4人):本单元第二课时起的“热身”部分,汇总前一课时个人、小组完成的有关任务

3.大组活动(全班分为4―5组):本单元学习的第六课时(课间或课后),汇总各小组的所有节目,并通过民主讨论、同伴互评的方式,确定1―2个最佳节目参加班级的英语诗歌节

4.班级活动:本单元学习之后,各大组推选的优秀节目汇演

四:节目形式(个人、双人、集体均可):

1.英语歌曲演唱或评论

2.英语诗人或诗歌作品介绍

3.英语诗歌朗诵

五.评价方式:同伴互评为主、教师短评为辅(评价方案由本单元学习过程中,在教师建议、学生讨论的基础上形成)

六.补充材料

(一) 阅读

Part I Read and enjoy yourself.

(A) Poetry

Poetry has magic, especially when it comes from the heart.

Poetry can touch us, move us, delight us, enlighten us, make us laugh, make us cry, and both

Soften and enrich our deepest memories. Poems are the ties that bind one stranger to another, often in friendship, sometimes in love, always in understanding.

There are many different kinds of poems. Poems may have rhyme, but they don’t have to. Poetry is divided into three types: lyrics(抒情诗), narrative(叙事诗), and dramatic(戏剧诗).

Lyric poetry is the most common kind. It imitates most short poems. Lyric may be set to music and song. Odes(颂歌), elegies(挽歌)and sonnets(十四行诗) are longer lyric poems. The ode is very structured. It may be written to praise a person or to celebrate an important event. Elegies have to do with death. Sonnets are fourteen line poems with a special rhyme pattern. Often they are love poems.

Narrative poetry tells stories. The most important kinds of narrative poems are ballads and epics. Ballads tell stories about individuals. They are meant to be sung. The epic is probably the oldes form of poetry. Epics are long poems that tell about the heroic deeds of a character. “ The Odyssey” is one of the best known epics. Many cultures have epics about their histories and legends.

Dramatic poetry also tells stories, but the characters act out the tales. The dialogue is written in rhyme. Shakespeare is the most famous dramatic poet.

生词集锦:

1、lyrics抒情诗 2、narrative叙事诗 3、dramatic戏剧诗

4、ode颂歌 5、elegy 挽歌 6、sonnet十四行诗

7、ballad民谣 8、epic史诗 9、individual个人,个体

(B) Shakespeare and his works

For any Englishman, there can never be any discussion as to who is the world’s greatest poet and dramatist. Only one name can possibly suggest itself to him: that of William Shakespeare. Every Englishman has some knowledge, however slight, of the work of our greatest writer. All of us use words, phrases and quotations from Shakespeare’s writings that have become part of the common possession of English-speaking people. Most of the time we probably don’t realize the source of the words we use, rather like the old lady who was taken to see a performance of Hamlet and complained that it was full of well-known proverbs and quotations!

Shakespeare, more perhaps than any other writer, made full use of the great resources of the English language. Most of us use about five thousand words in our normal employment of English; Shakespeare in his works used about twenty-five thousand! There is probably no better way for a foreigner ( or an Englishman) to appreciate the richness and variety of the English language than by studying the various ways in which Shakespeare used it. Such a study is well worth the effort ( it is not, of course, recommended to beginners), even though some aspects of English usage, and the meaning of many words, have changed since Shakespeare’s day.

Shakespeare was born in 1564 in Stratford-on-Avon and died there in 1616. He almost certainly attended the Grammar School in the town, but of this we cannot be sure. We know he was married there in 1582 to Anne Hathaway and that he had three children, a boy and two girls. We know that he spent much of his life in London writing his masterpieces. But this is almost all that we do know.

However, what is important about Shakespeare’s life is not its incidental details but his products, the plays and the poems. For many years scholars have been trying to add a few facts about Shakespeare’s life to the small number we already possess and for an equally long time critics have been theorizing about the plays. Sometimes, indeed, it seems that the poetry of Shakespeare will disappear beneath the great mass of comment that has been written upon it.

Fortunately this is not likely to happen. Shakespeare’s poetry and Shakespeare’s people ( Macbeth, Othello, Hamlet, Falstaff and the others ) have long delighted not just the English but lovers of literature everywhere, and will continue to do so after the scholars and commentators and all their works have been forgotten.

For more than 25 years Shakespeare had been associated with the best theatres of England. His first original play written in about 1590 was King Henry VI, parts two and three, the first part having been written earlier by another dramatist and only retouched by Shakespeare. During the twenty-two years of his literary work he produced 37 plays, two narrative poems and 154 sonnets.

His literary work may be divided into three major periods: the first period from 1590 to1600, the second period from 1601 to 1608, and the third from 1609 to 1612.

In the first period of his work Shakespeare wrote:

1590 The Second Part of King Henry VI

The Third Part of King Henry VI

1591 The First Part of King Henry VI

1592 The Life and Death of King Richard III

The Comedy of Errors

1593 Titus Andronicus

The Taming of the Shrew

1594 The Two Gentlemen of Verona

Love’s Labour’s Lost

Romeo and Juliet

1595 The Life and Death of Richard II

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

1596 The Life and Death of Richard II

The Merchant of Venice

1597 The First Part of King Henry IV

The Second Part of King Henry IV

1598 Much Ado About Nothing

The Merry Wives of Windsor

The Life of King Henry V

1599 The Life and Death of Julius Caesar

As You Like It

1600 Twelfth Night, or, What You Will

In the second period:

1601 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

1602 Troilus and Cressida

All’s Well That Ends Well

1604 Measure for Measure

Othello, the Moore of Venice

1605 King Lear

The Tragedy of Macbeth

1606 Antony and Cleopatra

1607 The Tragedy of Coriolanus

Timon of Athens

1608 Pericles, Prince of Tyre

In the third period:

1609 Cymbeline, King of Britain

1610 The Winter’s Tale

1612 The Tempest

The Life of King Henry VIII

Shakespeare had also written poems. Venus and Adonis (1592 ), Lucrece (1592-1593 ), and Sonnets ( 1593-1598 ).

Part II Read and test yourself.

( C )

Shelley, England’s greatest lyric poet, came of a family of some importance and power. Shelley, the eldest son, accordingly grew up with the prospect of becoming a man of wealth and title. At Eton (伊顿公学 ), he proved a good classical scholar, but was not very happy, for he was by nature revolutionary. He was known as “ mad Shelley”. He went to Oxford full of plans for changing the system of society –ideas partly picked up from the literature of the French Revolution. But he was dismissed because of his revolutionary idea. This to Shelley at 18 was a disaster, for he lost a valuable education at Oxford.

In 1813 he printed and published privately an extraordinary poem, Queen Mab(《卖布女王》), which expressed his protest against religion, his hatred of all forms of tyranny( 专政), and his belief in a new golden age. In 1816, he wrote Alastr(《阿拉斯特》) or the Spirit of Solitude(《孤独的精神》), the first long poem to show his true genius; next year he wrote a long imaginative poem on freedom and love, The Revolt of Islam(《伊斯兰起义》), which was inspired by the French Revolution and contains many fine passages of description.

In 1818, he went to settle in Italy. There Shelley gave up his dream of reforming the world by direct political action and decided that he could reach his goal most by passing on his own inspiration to others through his poetry. In this belief he composed his Prometheus Unbound(《解放了的普罗米修斯》), a poem to be enjoyed for its incomparable music, its colour and story, as well as because it contains Shelley’s noblest ideas. At this time Shelley wrote his finest lyrics- The Cloud(《云》), The Skylark(《致云雀》), The Ode to the West Wind(《西风颂》) and others.

In the summer of 1822 Shelley with his friend sailed in his yacht to greet Leigh Hunt; but on the return voyage, Shelley’s yacht was overturned in a sudden storm and he and his friend were drowned. Shelley was 30 when he died.

( ) 1. Which of the following may be the reason why he was dismissed by Oxford University?

A. He was very interested in electricity, chemistry and astronomy at Oxford.

B. He came from a poor family and couldn’t afford the educational fees(费用).

C. He was strongly against religion.

D. He fell in love with a girl at college.

( ) 2. Which of the following is the right order of events in Shelley’s life?

a. He wrote Alastr. b. He printed and published privately the poem, Queen Mab.

c. He was drowned d. He went to live in Italy. e. Shelley went to Oxford.

A. bedac B. ebadc C. abcde D. eabcd

( ) Which of the following is considered to be Shelley’s best lyrics?

A. The Spirit of Solitude. B. The Revolt of Islam.

C. The Rights of Women. D. The Skylark.

参考答案:CBD

( D)

Growing

By Brooke Muller

I’m leaving mow to slay the foe-

Fight he battles, high and low.

I’m leaving, Mother, hear me go!

Please wish me luck today.

I’ve grown my wings, I want to fly,

Seize my victories where they lie.

I’m going, Mom, but please don’t cry-

I want to see and touch and hear,

Though there are dangers, there are fears.

I’ll smile my smile and dry my tears-

Please let me speak my say.

I’m off to find my world, my dreams,

Carve my niche, sew my seams.

Remember, as I sail my streams-

I’ll love you, all the way.

You placed gold on my finger.

You brought love like I’ve never known.

You gave life to our children.

And to me a reason to go on.

You’re my bread when I’m hungry.

You’re my shelter from the trouble winds.

You’re my anchor in life’s ocean.

But, most of all, you’re my best friend.

When I need hope and inspiration.

You’re always strong when I’m tired and weak.

I could search this whole world over,

You’ll still be everything that I need.

( ) 1. The author of this poem is ________.

A. a strong man B. a naughty child C. uncertain D. a young lady

( ) 2. The person who is sung the praise of in the poem must be ________.

A. a beautiful wife B. a rich businessman C. a brave sailor D. a good husband

( ) 3. Which of the following does the author admire most in the poem?

A. Bread. B. Friend. C. Shelter. D. Anchor.

参考答案和简析:

1. C本诗没有提到作者的身份

2. D文中的“给我金银,给孩子生命,给我生活的力量,是我的面包,是我生命海洋的锚”等,足以判断作者是写给谁的。

3. B注意文中给予的比喻,并说“最重要的是,你是我的挚友”,由此判断朋友是作者最敬佩的。

(二)语法专项练习

I. 单项选择:

1.__________ with the size of the whole earth, the highest mountain doesn’t seem high at all.

A. When compared B. To compare C. While comparing D. It compared

2. Mr Smith, __________ of the _________ speech, started to read a novel. (2003 北京)

A. tired, boring B. tiring, bored C. tired, bored D. tiring, boring

3. Unless _________ to speak, you should remain silent at the conference. (2003上海春季)

A.invited B. inviting C. being invited D. having invited

4. Friendship is like money: easier made than ___________. (2003上海春季)

A.kept B. to be kept C. keeping D. being kept

5. __________ time, he’ll make a first-class tennis player. (2003 北京)

A. Having given B. To give C. Giving D. Given

6. The research is so designed that once _________ nothing can be done to change it.( NMET 2002)

A. begins B. having began C. beginning D. begun

7. The visitor expressed his satisfaction, _________ that he had enjoyed his stay here.

A. having added B. to add C. adding D. added

8. __________ his telephone number, she had some difficulty getting in touch with Bill.

A. Not knowing B. Knowing not C. Not having known D. Having not known

9. The computer center, ________ last year, is very popular among the students in this school.

A. open B. opening C. having opening D. opened

10. Prices of daily goods ______through a computer can be lower than store prices. (2002春季)

A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying

11. –How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers?

--The key _______ the problem is to meet the demand ______ by the customers.(2002 北京)

A. to solving, making B. to solving, made C. to solve, making D. to solve, made

12. Though ________ money, his parents managed to send him to university. ( 2002上海)

A. lacked B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked in

13. _________ to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one’s skin. ( 2002上海)

A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed

14. After his journey from abroad, Richard Jones returned home, _________. (2004上海春季)

A. exhausting B. exhausted C. being exhausted D. having exhausted

II.根据所给的汉语,用过去分词完成句子。

1. ____________________( 只要看一次), it can never be forgotten.

2. ___________________________(因为被认为是这个城市里面最好的工厂),the factory was given a medal.

3. The visitor came in, __________________________(后面跟着一群年轻人).

4. The object on the table is a fan _______________________(由羽毛制成的).

5. Our monitor, ____________________(深为感动), thanked him again and again.

答案:I. 1-5.AAAAD 6-10.DCADB 11-14.BCCB

II. 1. Once seen 2. Regarded as the best in the city

3. followed by a group of young fellows

4. made of feathers 5. deeply moved

(三)同步话题作文

请读下面一首小诗,然后按要求和提示写篇短文。

A Poem of an Iraqi Child

Dad, where did you go?

Mum and I needed you so.

I heard the terrible sound and smelled the smoke,

But what happened, I don’t know.

Dad, where did you go?

Mum and I missed you so.

Mum is tearing,

I am scaring from heart to soul.

But what had happened?

People say that I am too young to know.

Dad, come back,

Mum and I love you so.

She says you will be back.

With good news and hope.

【要求与提示】

1、 简述小诗内容(诗中一一个小孩的口吻表明:伊拉克处于战乱之中,战争给伊拉克人民带来极大的痛苦。)

2、 简单谈谈你内心的感受(小诗很感人,和平对于国家、人民是多么重要。)

3、 从欣赏的角度谈谈你对这首诗的看法(语言简明扼要,但含义丰富。他们心里充满着对胜利的希望。)

4、 可适当发挥想象。

5、 词数:100左右。

【参考词汇】battlefield, description, mean, simple,

【拟用短语】at war, suffer from, long for, touch one’s heart, have the hope, belong to, look forward to, to the point

【可用句型】rather than, be separated, more than , although

参考答案

This is a poem written by an Iraqi child. We are shown, rather than told that Iraq is at war. The child’s father has gone to the battlefield for their freedom. Iraqi people are suffering a lot from the war. To a small child war seems meaningless, but Father means much to him and the family. They are longing for the peace. The poem touches my heart. It truly brings tears to my eyes. One obvious meaning of the description is that how much peace means to a country and its people.

Although the description is simple and to the point, the meaning of the poem is rich. They have to be separated at the moment, however, they still have the hope in their mind. They believe the victory will belong to them. And they are looking forward to the day.

(四)文学常用相关词汇

文学literature 文学界 literatus/ republic of letters

艺术 art 诗歌 poetry/song/poem

诗集poetry anthology 诗节 strope

诗句 line/ verse 诗篇 psalm/ psalmbook

诗人 poet 诗坛 Parnassas

诗意 poetry 诗韵 rhyme

诗选 anthology 十四行诗 sonnet

散文 essay/prose 散文学proser

文集corpus 文豪 eminent writer

押韵 rhyme/ jingle 抒情 express one’s emotion

古典的classic/ classical 现代的 modern/ present-day

原创作者authorship 译本 version

Unit1-5 复习教案

I. Topics

Unit 1:

Friends and friendship; interpersonal relationships.

Unit 2:

English language and its development; different kinds of English

Unit 3:

Traveling; describing a journey

Unit 4:

Basic knowledge of earthquakes; how to protect oneself and help the others in disasters

Unit 5:

The qualities of a great person;

The lives of some great people.

II. Words and expressions

Unit 1:

add point upset ignore calm concern loose cheat reason list share feeling Netherlands German series outdoors crazy purpose nature dare thunder entirely power according trust indoors suffer teenager advice questionnaire quiz situation editor communicate habit

add up calm down have got to be concerned about walk the dog go through hide away set down a series of on purpose in order to face to face according to get along with fall in love join in

Unit 2:

include, role, international, native, elevator, flat, apartment, rubber, petrol, gad, modern, however, culture, actually, present(adj.), rule(v.), vocabulary, usage, government, rapidly, candy, lorry, command, polite, request, boss, standard, Midwestern, southern, eastern, southeastern, northwestern, Spanish, recognize, accent, lightning, direction, ma’ma, block

play a role in, because of, come up, such as, give a command, play a part

Unit 3:

journal, fare, transport, finally, cycle, persuade, insist, proper, properly, determine, rapid, valley, waterfall, plain, attitude, shorts, camp, record, afterthought, topic, familiar, brave

change one’s mind, give in

Unit 4:

shake, well (n.), rise, smelly, pond, pipe, burst, canal, steam, dirt, ruin, injure, destroy, brick, dam, useless, steel, shock, quake, rescue, electricity, disaster, army, organize, bury, coal, shelter, fresh, percent, speech, judge, honour, prepare;

right away, (be) at an end, dig out, bring in, a (great )number of

Unit 5:

hero quality willing active republic principle fight peaceful prison prisoner period law advise continue fee gold youth league stage vote position accept violence equal blanket degree guard educated terror fear cruelty reward right(n.) criminal leader president sentence(v.) sincerely

lose heart in trouble worry about out of work Youth League as a matter of fact blow up put… in prison come to power set up be sentenced to

III. Functional items

Unit 1:

Agreement and disagreement

I agree. I don’t agree.

I think so. I don’t think so.

Exactly. I’ m afraid not.

Unit 2:

1. Language difficulties in communication

Pardon?

I beg your pardon? I don’t understand.

Could you say that again, please?

Sorry, I can’t follow you.

Could you repeat that, please?

Can you speak more slowly, please?

Unit 3:

Good wishes:

Have a good day/time!

Have a good journey/trip!

Good luck!

Enjoy yourself!

Best wishes to you.

Happy New Year!

Merry Christmas!

Happy birthday!

Thank you.

You, too.

The same to you.

Means of transportation:

walking, cycling, horse riding, taking buses/trains/boats/planes

Unit 4:

Talking about past experiences:

I will never forget the day when the earthquake took place. The time was 5:15 in the afternoon and I was driving along the road.

Unit 5:

A. Giving opinions:

Why do you think so?

What do you think of …?

What’s your opinion?

I agree/ don’t agree.

I think/don’t think….

I prefer….

In my opinion….

I’m afraid…

B. Making comments:

Good idea!

That’s an excellent idea.

IV. Structures

Unit 1:

Direct speech and indirect speech

Statements:

“I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary,” said Anne.

-- Anne said that she didn’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary.

Questions

“ When did you go to bed last night?” Father said to Anne.

-- Father asked Anne when she went to bed the night before.

Unit 2:

Imperative sentences and its indirect speech

Open the door.

Please open the door.

Would you please open the door?

He told me to open the door.

Unit 3:

现在进行表将来

Where are you going on holiday?

I am going to Hawaii on holiday.

When are we coming back?

Unit 4:

The attributive clause (I)

由that, which, who, whose引导的定语从句

The number of people who were killed or injured reached more than 400,000.

It was heard in Beijing which is one hundred kilometers away.

Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed.

Unit 5:

The attributive clause (II)

由where, when, why, 介词+ which, 介词+ when 引导的定语从句。

The school where I studied only two years was three kilometers away.

This was a time when you had got to have a passbook to live in Johannesburg.

The reason why I got a job was because of my hard work.

…we were put in a position in which we had either to accept we were less important, or fight the Government.

The person to whom you should be grateful for a peaceful South Africa is Nelson Mandela.

Unit 10 American literature

I.Words

1. furnish v. ①为。。配备家具,装家具于。。=supply with furniture, put furniture in a house / room;

②提供(所需的东西)

furniture u.n 家具

a piece of furniture

a set of furniture

① 这间房子家具齐备。

The house is well furnished.

②We furnished our house with new curtains.

③We are renting a furnished house.

④The publishing house furnished new books to a library.=

The publishing house furnished a library with new books.

2.rare adj ①稀有的,罕见的, 冷僻的; ②珍奇的,出类拔萃的;

③(空气等)稀薄的;

④(肉) 煎的嫩的

rarely adv

rare species 珍惜动物

a rare disease 罕见的病

rare air 稀薄的空气

a rare steak 鲜嫩的牛排

我极少到饭馆吃饭。

Only rarely do I eat in restaurants.

他很少迟到。

It is rare for him to be late.

2.worthy adj. (做表语)值得的,配得上的;(做定语)有价值的,可敬的,优秀的

①He did a worthy job.=He did an excellent job.

②The park is worthy of a visit.

of being visited.

to be visited.

Cf:

①The park is worth a visit.

visiting.

②The book is worth 10 yuan.

3.burden vt.使挑重担;使负重

n.重担;负荷

burden sb with sth.

be burdened with sth.

He is only twenty-two, but he has to be burdened with a family.

4.approve vi.赞成 approve of sth.

vt.批准

approval n.

①They don’t quite approve of the plan.

②The minister approved the building plan.

II.Phrases

1. attend to

注意,专心=pay attention to ;

照料,照顾=look after;

处理,对付=deal with;

接待=serve

①I wish I had attended to what she said.

②She has a great deal to attend to today.

③He was called in to attend to a wounded boy.

Are you being attended to, sir? 先生,有人接待你吗?

Cf: attend (on/upon)伺候

The queen was attended on by a number of servants .

2.go far (货币)值钱,耐花;大有帮助,起很大作用;大有前途/成就

①He has an income of 500 yuan per month. It doesn’t go far for his family.

②Your suggestion will go far towards solving the problem.

③A man with courage and confidence will go far.

3.take pride in=be proud of

He takes pride in his furnished house.=

He is proud of his furnished house.

4.do up把(头发)向上盘;

梳妆,打扮=make up;

cf: dress up

扎,捆,扣=fasten/tie;

收拾,整理tidy up/clean up;

包起来, 扎起来=wrap;

整修, 装饰(房屋等)=repair /decorate a house

do yourself up: make up 梳妆, 打扮

do up the buttons 系纽扣

do up the furniture 整修家具

do up the rooms 粉刷房间

do up presents 包礼物

①玛丽已打扮好, 准备参加舞会。

Mary has done herself up for the party.

②这条裙子是从后面扣的。

This skirt does up at the back.

③After she hesitated for a minute , she quickly did up her hair.

④The little girl did up the buttons the wrong way.

⑤Can you do me the favor to do up the room?

5.let down 使失望disappoint;使丢脸shame;不支持;放下put down

①I’m depending/relying/accounting on you to support me. Don’t let me down.

②Let down a rope so that I can climb up.

6. fix sth on/upon sth/sb.=①stare at sb/sth. ②全神贯注于

He sat on the couch , with his eyes fixed on the set of combs.

He fixed /focused/ concentrated /centered his attention on listening to the news.

7.at length最后,终于=at last;详尽地=in detail; 长久地=for a long time

他终于回来了。At length he returned.

他详细地给我讲了很久

He spoke to me at (great ) length

III.Sentence patters

1. [In the hall below] was a mailbox into which no letter would go.

[Down ] flowed the brown cascade.

Many happy hours had she spent , planning for something nice for him.

2. Tomorrow would be Christmas Day and she had only $1.87 with which to buy Jim a present.=

…she had only $1.87 with which she could buy Jim a present.

Please give me a knife with which to cut the apple.=….a knife with which I can cut the apple .

3.It was not anger, nor surprise, nor a look showing that he did not approve, nor horror, nor any of the feelings that she had been prepared for.

not …nor…不。。。也不。。。(连接并列成分或句子)

①I will not do it, nor consider it.

②I don’t know where he has gone, nor do I care.

4.The dull precious metal seemed to flash, as if (it was) reflecting her bright spirit.

as if /as though

She stood as if (she was) rooted to the ground.

She stared at the girl as if (she was) seeing her for the first time.

She opened her mouth as if (she was) to speak.

5.Let’s forget about it now and have our dinner, shall we?

Let us have dinner, will you?

V. Practice

(A)Fill in the blank with proper words.

1. My uncle spends almost all of his income collecting rare stamps.

2. A red light will start flashing/ to flash when the batteries are getting low.

3. Mother doesn’t approve of her smoking.

4. How much baggage do you have for this trip? Five pieces.

5. The apartment is well furnished.

6. He looks very shabby wearing a worn-out overcoat.

7. Some people throw away household garbage at will, making environment polluted.

8. The outcome of their discussion is still unknown.

9. Your hair is so long. Go and get a haircut.

(B) Fill in the blank with proper phrases.

1. She won’t go with you because she is attending to /will attend to / must attend to / has to attend to the baby.

2. I’m sorry to let you down, but I really can’t do anything now.

3. They take/ took pride in their daughter’s success.

4. They spoke at length _about the situation before making the decision.

5. Alex tried to fix his mind on/upon the job at hand.

6. The present was done up in yellow wrapping paper when it arrived.

7. Burdened with a large family, the man had to work hard.

(C)Multiple choices

1. He is a patient needing ___.

A. attending B. attending to

C. attending on D. all of the above

2. She was carrying a parcel of books ___ in brown paper.

A. doing up B. done up

C. doing with D. done with

3. The question facing business is whether such research is __________ the costs.

A. valuable B. worth of

C. worthy of D. worthwhile

4. On the door was pinned a note, which ___ “Thank you for your help.”

A. read B. say

C. wrote D. was read

5. When the famous scientist was making a speech, many eyes were ___ on him.

A. set B. centered

C. fixed D. aimed

6. I can’t save more money because 1000 Yuan a month doesn’t ___ far.

A. go B. walk

C. last D. spread

7. Our school is a beautiful and famous one. I took ___ in being a member of it.

A. glory B. honor

C. pride D. pleasure

8. She is a girl who likes to show her beauty .Look, she is ___ herself up again.

A. making B. doing

C. picking D. taking

9. She is a very promising girl; I think she will never ___ us down.

A. get B. set

C. let D. put

10.___ production up by 60 percent/As the production has risen /increased by 60 percent, the company has had another excellent year.(NMET2000)

A. As B. For

C. With D. Through

(D)Writing

根据下面提示和所给的词, 写一篇短文。

李华: 家庭富有, 独立,勤奋; 学习上从不让人失望; 很少上网, 不爱打扮, 是个好学生;大学期间在外租房; 不顾父母反对,找了份照顾老太太的零工。

Let down rare do up be worthy furnish approve attend to

Though Li Hua is a college student from a wealthy family, she is diligent and independent. She has never let her parents or teachers down in her studies ever since her childhood. Compared with other students, she is a rare visitor to a cyber cafe, but a frequent visitor to the library or a bookstore. She never wastes time doing herself up, but occupies herself with courses. She is worthy of the honor as a good student.

She lives in a furnished flat. Though her parents don’t approve of her taking part-time jobs, she has got one recently. She is attending to an old lady not far from her flat. She thinks this experience will be useful for her future work.

Unit 11

1.criterion/ criteria(pl) n. (判断、批评的)标准,准则,尺度[C]

What criteria do you use when judging the quality of a student's work?

你用什么标准来衡量学生的学业?

2.summary adj.

1.) 概括的,扼要的

He gave a summary report of the day's events. 他对一天的事件作了简要的报告。

2.) 实时的;草率的;即决的,简易的

The government took summary action to aid the earthquake victims.政府即刻采取行动救济地震灾民。

n. 总结,摘要,一览[C][(+of)] He made a summary of the case. 他为这个案件做了一个摘要。

3.percentage n.

1.) 百分率,百分比[C] [(+of)] What percentage of children were absent? 缺席的学童占百分之几?

2.) 比例;部分[C] Each of them got a percentage of the profits. 他们每个人都得到一部分利润。

3.) 【口】好处,利益[U] There is no percentage in arguing with him.同他争论于事无补。

4.suspect vt.

1.) 疑有,察觉 The tiger suspected danger and ran away.老虎意识到危险便逃跑了。

2.) 怀疑,不信任 We suspected their honesty. 我们不相信他们是诚实的。

3.) 怀疑(某人犯有过错)[+of] [+(that)]The police suspected that Bill did it. 警察怀疑那件事是比尔干的。

4.) 猜想;料想 [+(that)] I suspect they'll come. 我想他们会来的。

n. 嫌疑犯;可疑分子[C]

adj. 可疑的;受到怀疑的;不可信的[(+of/to/with)]

His motives were suspect with others. 他的动机受到其他人的怀疑。

5.temporary

adj. 临时的;暂时的,一时的 Ellen has got a temporary job. 艾伦找到一份临时工作。

n.[C] 1.) 临时工,临时雇员 She works in the office as a temporary. 她在办公室做临时雇员。

2.) 临时事物;临时房屋

The wartime temporaries will be replaced by permanent homes.

那些战时临时住房将被永久性住宅代替。

6.expectation n.

1.) 期待;预期[U][C]The dog wagged its tail in expectation of a bone. 那条狗摇着尾巴,巴望吃肉骨头。

2.) 期望,预期的事物(pl.) The reward fell short of our expectations. 奖励不符我们的希望。

3.) 前程(pl.) a young artist with great expectations 有远大前程的青年艺术家

7.division n.

1.) 分开,分割[U][(+into)]

The compilers agreed upon a division of the textbook into twelve units.

编写者都同意把教科书分成十二个单元。

2.) 分配,分派[U][(+between/among)]

The thieves quarrelled about the division of their stolen goods. 这些贼为分偷来的物品而争吵。

3.) 【数】除(法)[U] The boy has learnt to do division. 这个小男孩已学会做除法。

8.compromise n.

1.) 妥协,和解[C][U][(+between)] I hope we shall come to a compromise. 我希望我们能达成妥协。

2.) 妥协方案,折衷办法;折衷物[C]

The interior decoration of the house is a compromise between Chinese and foreign styles.

这所房子的内部装饰是中西两式的折衷物。

vt. 1.) 互让解决(分歧等) 2.) 连累,危及

You will compromise your good name if you associate with these people.

你如果与这些人交往就会损害你的好名声。

3.) 放弃(原则等);泄露(秘密等) He refused to compromise his principles. 他拒绝放弃原则。

vi. 妥协,让步[(+on)] They found it wiser to compromise with her. 他们觉得与她妥协更明智。

9.dynamic adj.

1.) 力的;动力的 a dynamic load 动力荷载 2.) 能动的;动态的 a dynamic verb 动态动词

3.) 有活力的;有生气的;强有力的 a dynamic young businessman 生气勃勃的年轻商人

10.embarrass vt.

1.) 使窘;使不好意思,使局促不安 [(+with/by)]

Arthur seemed embarrassed by the question. 亚瑟似乎被这个问题弄得有些窘迫。

2.) 使负债;使拮据 A large family embarrassed him. 他子女多,这使他经济拮据。

3.) 妨碍,阻碍 Wearing the heavy coat embarrassed his movements. 穿着厚大衣妨碍了他的行动。

11.contradictory adj.

1.) 矛盾的,对立的[(+to)]

The prisoner's statement was contradictory to the one he'd made earlier.

那个囚犯的供词与早些时候说的相矛盾。

2.) 好反驳的,喜争辩的 a contradictory nature爱斗嘴的讨厌本性

n.[C] 1.) 矛盾因素,对立物 2.) 【逻】矛盾命题;否定项

12.violent adj.

1.) 激烈的;猛烈的;强烈的 The boat sank in a violent storm at sea. 船在海上强烈的风暴中沉没。

2.) 由暴力引起的;暴力的[Z] She died a violent death. 她惨遭横祸。

3.) 极端的,极度的 A violent impatience overcame him. 他变得极不耐烦。

4.) 狂暴的,凶暴的 The madman was violent and had to be locked up. 这疯子十分凶暴,只好把他锁起来。

13.resign vt.

1.) 放弃,辞去 The general resigned his commission. 将军辞去了他的职务。

2.) 把...托交给,委托[(+to/into)]

She resigned her children to the care of her sister. 她把孩子交给她妹妹照管。

3.) 使听从,使顺从[(+to)] He is resigned to his fate. 或 He resigned himself to his fate. 他听天由命。

vi. 辞职[(+from)] The simplest thing is for him to resign at once.最简单的做法就是他立即辞职。

14. definite adj.

1.) 明确的,确切的 She made no definite answer. 她没有作确定的回答。

2.) 一定的,肯定的 It's definite that he'll be late again. 他肯定又要迟到。

3.) 限定的

15.congratulate vt.

1.) 祝贺;恭喜[(+on/upon)]

I congratulate you on your great discovery. 我祝贺你的伟大发现。

I want to congratulate you with all my heart. 我衷心地祝贺你。

2.) (后接oneself)自我庆幸[(+on)]

He congratulated himself on having survived the air-crash. 他庆幸自己在空难中幸免于死。

16. finance

n. 1.) 财政;金融;财政学[U]

He got the position on the strength of his skill in finance. 他凭着自己的理财本领得到了这个职位。

2.) (对事业的)资金支援[U]

3.) 财源;资金;(国家的)岁入;财务情况[P]

The country's finances have improved.这个国家财政状况改善了。

vt. 供资金给;融资,为...筹措资金 Our project is adequately financed. 我们的工程资金充足。

vi. 筹措资金 We are financing for the housing project. 我们在为住宅计划筹措资金。

17.decline vi.

1.) 下降,下跌;减少;衰退,衰落

As one grows older one's memory declines. 人的记忆力随着年龄增长而衰退。

Unemployment declined to 4 percent last month. 上个月失业率降至百分之四。

2.) 【书】倾斜;下垂 3.) 婉拒;谢绝

vt.

1.) 婉拒;谢绝[+to-v] She declined their invitation. 她婉拒了他们的邀请。

She declined to have lunch with her friend, saying that she wasn't feeling well.

她说她身体不舒服,婉拒了与她的朋友共进午餐。

2. )【语】使发生词尾变化,使变格

n. 1.) 下降;减少[S1] There is a decline in real wages. 实际工资有所减少。

2.) 衰退,衰落[the S] 3.) 倾斜[the S]

18.oral

adj. 1.) 口头的,口述的

An oral agreement is not enough; we must have a written promise.

只有口头协议是不够的;我们必须有一个书面承诺。

He passed his German oral exam. 他通过了德文口试。

2.) 口的,口部的 The oral opening in an earthworm is small. 蚯蚓的口是很小的。

3.) (药)口服的 The doctor prescribed an oral dose of medicine. 医生开了一剂口服药。

重点短语:

1.stick with继续支持;保持联系

2.through thick and thin 不顾艰难1. 在任何情况下

I'll support you through thick and thin.在任何情况下我都会支持你们。

3.pull out of从……中退出 pull out of the fire1. 使转危为安

They just pulled the game out of the fire.他们好不容易赢了比赛。

4.cater to满足某种需要或要求,迎合;为...服务

Those newspapers cater to the lowest tastes.这些报纸迎合低级趣味。

5.for the sake of由于;为了……的利益 为了

He argues for the sake of arguing.他是为争辩而争辩。

6.in reality事实上;实际上=in fact, actually

Everyone likes the stranger, but in reality he is a criminal.

每个人都喜欢这位陌生人,其实他却是个罪犯。

7.keep an eye on 照料;照管1. 照看;注意

Would you keep an eye on my baby for a while?请你照看一下我的婴儿好吗?

8.take sth. into account考虑;体谅

9.as a whole 总的说来;作为整体;整个看来

Is this true just in this country, or in the world as a whole?

只是在这个国家如此呢,还是就整个世界来看都这样?

10.once again再一次

11.live up to依照……行事;做到;不辜负(期望)实践;

You must live up to your promise.你必须实践自己的诺言。

12.accept...as... 认为……

The astronaut accepts danger as being part of the job.

宇航员承认他们的工作中包含着危险。

13.on one’s own独自,靠自己,独立

14.the majority of大多数;大部分

15.a pie chart饼状图

16.a bar chart柱状图

17.match...to... 使……(和……)调和,相配

18.be suspected of 被猜疑,被怀疑

19.take measures to ...采取措施(做……)

20.be familiar with 对……熟悉

21.be made up of构成;组成

22.count...as... 把…认为…

23.on the other hand 另一方面

24.attach to 伴随… 属于All blame must attach to myself.一切责任应由我本人承担。

25.be aware of 察觉到,感觉到,获悉

26.be suitable for适合做……

27.guard...against... 守护……(免于……),保护

28.make the best use of充分利用

29.on the surface 表面上的,外表上

30.as a matter of fact 实际上

As a matter of fact, I've never been there before.事实上我从未到过那儿。

31.be satisfied with 对……满意

32.lose face 失面子

33.by means of以……,借着……用;以

They succeeded by means of perseverance.他们依靠坚忍不拔而获得成功。

34.put ... to use使用,用,利用

35.in demand有需要的;吃香的The book is in great demand.这本书需要量很大。

36.so as to 为了,目的是

Unit 1

1 喜欢

2 一直

3 网上冲浪

4 玩电脑游戏

5 在飞行

6 独自

7 搜索,寻找

8 增进友谊

9 把…当成…

10 同甘共苦

11 关心

12 与…交朋友

13 上飞机

14 开玩笑

15 给某人写封信

1 be fond of

2 all the time

3 serf the internet

4 play computer games

5 be on a flight

6 all alone

7 hunt for

8 develop a friendship

9 treat… as…

10 share happiness and sorrow

11 care about

12 make friends with

13 on board the plane

14 joke about

15 drop sb. a line

Unit 2

1 第一次

2 直飞…

3 别客气, 请随意

4 大多数

5总计

6 母语

7 除…之外

8 英语知识

9 发生

10 几天以后

11 分别去度假

12 旅行愉快

13 以…告终

14 不睡觉,熬夜

1 for the first time

2 fly all the way directly to…

3 make yourself at home

4 the majority of

5 in total

6 mother tongue

7 except for

8 a knowledge of English

9 take place/come about

10 in a few days time

11. go on separate holidays

12. have a good trip

13. end up with

14. stay up late

Unit 3

1. 进行体育锻炼

2. 去远足

3. 注意,当心,警惕…

4. 防晒

5. 体验生活

6. 逃离,远离

7. 为某人送行

8. 乘出租车

9. 代问某人问候

10. 乘飞机旅行

11. 另一方面

1. take exercises

2. go hiking/go for a hike

3. watch out for

4. protect sb. from the sun

5. experience life

6. get away from

7. see sb. off

8. take a taxi

9. say “Hi” to sb.

10. travel by air

11. on the other hand

Unit 4

1 主办2008 年奥运会

2 遇上,赶上,被困于

3 上游泳课

4 担任,充当

5 一大片,一大块,大量的

6 三思

7 往上拽,拦阻,使停下

8 抓住,坚持住

9 站立起来

10 面现惧色

11 冲走,刮走

12 电话号码

13 进行两天的旅行

14 一直爬到山顶

1.host the 2008 Olympics

2.be caught in

3. take swimming lessons

4. work as

5. a big mass of

6. think twice

7. pull up

8. hold onto

9. get on one’s feet

10. with a look of fright

11. sweep away

12. phone number

13. go on a two-day trip

14. climb all the way up to the top of the mountain

Unit 5

1 扮演角色

2 获得奥斯卡最佳女演员奖

3 挣钱

4 脱掉,起飞,成名

5 使某人得到一份导演的工作

6 把…剁碎

7 出错,出问题

8 把成功归功于某人

9 总共

10 以…开始

11 追赶,追逐

12 逃学

13 出现在电视上

14 对…高度评价

1. play roles

2. win Oscar for the Best Actress

3. make money

4. take off

5. win sb. a job as a director

6. cut …into pieces

7. go wrong

8. own success to sb.

9. in all

10. start with/begin with

11. run after

12.run away from school

13. appear live on the air

14. think highly of

Unit 6

1 一封感谢信

2 把…介绍给…

3 为…向某人道歉

4 留下好印象

5 为某人的健康干杯

6 喝一小口

7 赶时髦

8 忙于

9 敬酒的习惯

10 有礼貌

11 招待某人吃饭

12 请随便吃

13 省去,遗漏,不考虑

1. a thank-you letter

2. introduce… to…

3 . apologize to sb. for

4.make a good impression

5. drink to one’s health

6.take a sip

7. follow the fashion of time

8. be busy with sth.

9. the custom of toasting

10. have good manners

11. serve sb. with a meal

12. enjoy your meal

13. leave out

Grammar

Answers to Ex 1

从这些句子中我们可以看出可以总结出,哪一些词和结构可以担当状语呢?

(adv, prep phrases, noun phrases, infinitive, the present participle and the past participle and clauses)

Ex 2 on P60.

名词作状语的用法归纳

1. 表示时间的名词前面有one, some, the, this, that, last, next, every, all 等词修饰时。

Many common injuries happen every day in the home.

每天家里会发生一些常见的外伤事故。

Which subject is he going to study this term?

这学期他将学什么课程?

2. 表示时间的名词修饰其后的 ago, since, before, after, week, month等词时。

I saw him two weeks ago.

我在两周前见过他。

Many years later, he became a millionaire.

很多年过去了,他成了百万富翁

3. 名词或名词词组前的during或 for省略之后,名词就直接作了状语。

Could you wait (for) a few days for the money?

这钱,你们可以等几天吗?

Nothing happened (during) the whole vacation.

整个假期,什么事也没发生。

4. 表示数量的名词,放在long, broad, wide, high, tall, deep, strong, thick, old等形容词之前,作状语。

The bridge is 3000 metres long.

这座桥有3000米长。

He is thirty years old.

他三十岁了

5. 表示次数、距离、方向、 程度、价值、状态的名词作状语。

Take this medicine three times a day.

这种药一天服用三次。

Come this way, please.

请这边走。

6. 比较级前的名词也是直接作状语。

I got up an hour earlier than usual.

我今早上比平时早起了一个小时。

形容词作状语

形容词作状语,形容词或形容词短语作状语,通常说明主语行为的原因、方式、伴随状况。

1.原因 Cusious, she looked around for other guests.

2. 时间 Alone, she would cry.

3. 方式 Ripe, the oranges taste Breathless, she ran into the gate.

形容词作状语,通常说明主语的情况。

Brave and strong, the activists talked to workers outside the factory.

但有时也可能是说明宾语的情况。

He pushed the door open.

He writes the characters large.

分词作状语

1. 和主语之间的关系 Taking a deep breath, he dived into the water.

2. 否定形式 Not promoted, Yang Chenggang decided to sigh for another company.

3. 时态 Having lost her job, she had to look for another one.

复合结构作状语(absolute construction –独立结构& with)

1. Weather permitting, we’ll go for a picnic next week. (ing)

2. He lay on his back, his hands crossed under his head. (ed)

3. He entered the room, his nose red. (adj.)

4. The thief was caught red-handed, the woman’s wallet in his pocket.(prep)

5. He hurried into the hospital, with a sick boy in his arm.(with)

状语从句

as

1. as 引导时间状语从句, 持续性动作,强调主句和从句的动作同时发生。

He was looking behind as he went. (两个短动作同时发生。)

As/When/While he was walking down the street, I noticed a strange car ahead.(一长一短)

As I grow older, the tree grow taller. (两种都在变化。)

2. as 引导原因状语从句, 常放在句首。

As he himself was a stranger here, he asked the woman to ask a policeman.

3. as 引导方式状语从句,按照, 正如

Do as I told you.

4. as 引导让步状语从句,倒装。

Child as he was, he swam acrossed the QiongZhou Channel.

Every time, the first time, next time, the moment ,

Every time I failed, my mother gave me great encouragement.

The moment I saw her, I realized that she was the girl I was looking for.

Instantly, immediately, directly

Instantly you press the button, the police will know.

I’ll give you an answer immediately I’ve finished your report.

刘俊林

一. 导言

为了中华民族的复兴,我国正在实施科教兴国的方略。科教兴国,基础在教育,我国的基础英语教育进入了一个新的大好的发展时期,它的鲜明标志是新课改、新课程和新教材。教育改革关键在于教师,在于教师的教育理念。实施素质教育的先决条件和有效保障是教师素质的提高。教师发展问题(Teacher Development)已经成为世界各国教育界普遍重视的战略性课题。新课改倡导教师更新教育观念;新课程标准的颁布则为我们的英语教学勾画出一幅新的发展蓝图:“培养学生的综合语言运用能力”这一总目标取代了这些年来大纲规定的“培养学生的英语交际能力”这一提法;对学生进行“语言技能、语言知识、情感态度、学习策略和文化意识”五大基础训练取代了原来提出的“基础知识和基本技能”两大基础训练;推出了9级英语教学目标和高中英语学分制评价体系;倡导“任务型”的英语教学途径。与课改、课标相呼应,人教版高一英语新教材也相应于2003年秋季开始正式使用。尽管我们对《新课程标准》已有了解,但真正使用新教材仍然感到问题颇多:教材的内容不断增加,词汇量不断加大,教学方式主要是根据“任务型”教学设计学生的活动,课时又不增加,教材怎么能教得完?这就要求我们中学英语教师从容面对新课程,寻求自我发展,但为什么要自我发展?怎样自我发展?发展的方向是什么?这些都是值得我们研究的问题。

二. 英语教师自我发展的必要性

在新课程环境下,在新理念指导下的教学必然是新教学,教学面临着巨大的改革,完成这一改革的执行者是教师。教师的一种新型角色--“促进者”也就应运而生,这个角色的特点是“积极地旁观;给学生以心理上的支持,创造良好的学习气氛;注重培养学生的自律能力。”为此,教师应完成下列五个方面的自我超越:以催化者代替领导者;以学习者代替无所不能者;以引导者代替指导者;以情绪教育代替惟智教学;以个别创造性代替团体一致性。在这样的新课程新形势下,教师素质的提高已迫在眉睫,它直接关系到《课程标准》的落实与否。而外语是学习文化科学知识,获取世界各方面信息,进行国际交流的重要工具,外语的掌握在当今尤其重要。中学外语教学是语言教学、基础教育、素质教育的重要环节。因此,中学外语教学中,实施素质教育势在必行。实施素质教育的核心在课堂,关键在教师。高素质的教师队伍是完成素质教育的根本保证,新型的外语教师或外语教育工作者队伍的形成和发展是保证外语教育效率提高的首要条件。可以预见,新型的英语教师以其全新的教学理念与教育底蕴,全面的个人素质与个人品质,将会成为教育改革大潮中的"领航者"。

三. 英语教师该怎样从容面对新课程?

首先,英语教师要进行自我充电,自我完善。在外语教学中,文化是指目标语言国家的历史地理、风土人情、传统习俗、生活方式、文学艺术、价值观念等。一般说来,教师对于英语的交际文化(如问候、邀请、称赞、致谢、道歉、求助等)更为熟悉,而对于知识文化(如宗教、社会、政治、经济、文学艺术等)则了解不多。《英语课程标准》中对于学生的文化意识提出的目标不仅需要英语教师在课上结合教材内容及所教学生特点进行适时、适量的介绍,而且还应自成体系地进行跨文化的对比与分析。如果教师对相关知识没有较为系统的了解,则难免会在教学中穷于应付。因此加大英语知识文化的摄入、树立终身学习的理念是新时期英语教师提高文化素养的必由之路。 人民教育出版社依据新课标修订出版的高中英语教科书,除结构处理与活动设计上进一步体现任务型教学思想外,还增加了学生喜闻乐见的话题与素材。教材中渗透了社会科学和自然科学、信息技术、航天技术、环保等多种学科知识,而且大量活动任务需要师生共同结合课内外相关知识来进行。显然,一个兴趣单一、知识面窄、求知欲差的教师决不可能胜任新课程的教学工作。阅读适当的英文报刊来拓宽知识视野是教师专业发展的需要,也是更新知识结构的需要;在实际课堂教学中,学生所接触的素材大都是关于英、美国家的文化、历史与现状,中国文化在课堂上介入的量相当少。当教师介绍西方的餐饮文化时,似乎很少会想到应当让学生也学习一些更为“生活化”的知识,也就难怪学习了八年、九年英语的高中生无法找到恰当的词汇来描述一些常见的事物--糖葫芦、三轮车、四合院,更不用说准确翻译“下岗”、“乡镇企业”或是“素质教育”了。这除了教材本身的因素外,英语教师的本土文化意识不强也是主要原因,所以英语教师也不能忘了“本土文化”。  

其次,转变传统的教育观念,落实新的教育观念。教育思想观念是教育教学行为的先导。教育的不适应,首先是教育观念的不适应;收效不大,首先是教育观念转变不够。我们必须清醒地认识到,新一轮课程改革决不仅仅是换一套教科书,而是一场教育观念的更新。在这种大变革的背景下,要求教师必须抛弃落后的、陈旧的传统观念,树立先进的、现代的教育观念。这就包括: 1。新课程英语教师观念转变之一 --- 树立正确的教材观,教师和学生要做教材的主人,而不是教材的奴隶。教师应积极激发学生的联想与创新思维,在师生互动,共同开发教材,为更好地利用本教材进行有益的探索。2。新课程英语教师观念转变之二 --- 树立正确的教师观。课程提倡树立教师是学生学习的合作者、帮助者、组织者、引导者的教师观,由师道尊严、居高临下的教师权威向平等融洽的朋友转变。教学过程是师生交往,共同发展的互动过程。传统意义上教师的教和学生的学应让位于师生互教互学,彼此形成一个真正的“学习共同体”。3。新课程英语教师观念转变之三 --- 树立正确的学生观。新课程的核心理念是“为了每一位学生的发展”。新课程课堂教学由学科本位转向人的发展本位。4。新课程英语教师观念转变之四 --- 树立正确的评价观。评价应关注学生综合语言运用能力的发展过程以及学习的效果,采用形成性评价与终结性评价相结合的方式,既关注结果,又关注过程,使对学习过程和对学习结果的评价达到和谐统一。

最后,改变教学方式,促进学习方式的转变,在“教会学习”的口号下,要求学生自己查字典(英汉词典),自己记例句,在此基础上自己用新词语造句,自己找漂亮的句式、表达法进行模仿,自己找句子进行诠解的同时,自己找出课文中的难点,也就是吸收课文的养分。从教的这头来说,就是要挖尽课文中的一切,在利用课文的全过程中,让学生学会外语,保证学生的预习复习的程度,特别注意学生是否真正掌握了自学的方法,并进行有目的的指导。与此同时,教师还应花力气引导学生自学课文的深度,要让不同水平的学生,特别是优秀学生充分展示他们的预习复习成果,给英雄有一块用功之地,学生在高质量的交流中享受到成功的喜悦 ,也使同学们在互相启发,互相学习,互相追赶中不断地提高课外言语活动与自学的质量,收到意想不到的教学效果。因为学生的课外学习不是被动的,是主动的、有章有法的,有的是有创造欲望的,甚至充满激情的。这就完全体现出“以学生为主体”的学习。学生在学的过程中体会到用外语欣赏到知识果实的感受,同时,教师对学生不断地提高要求,启发、利导,让学生永远有跳一下,以摘取成功的硕果的欲望与要求,这充分体现了发展学生智力,培养情感与教学相结合的特点。预习与复习是学生学得知识的主要方法,作业与考试也是维持高质量自学水平的重要手段。作业的布置,要以检验、巩固,特别是要发挥预习复习的成果,达到应用与交际的阶段。这样的过程与周期从学的角度说,应该比较优化,学生的自学能力能极大地提高。从教的角度说,教师不仅要把握知识这一块,同时还必须从德育、文化、智力开发、习惯养成等多方位备好,在课堂上把时间贡献给学生。这时,指导的广度与深度,引导驾驭课堂的艺术就更显突出与重要,这是对教师的挑战与考验。

四.结论

英语教师要从容面对新课程,必须进行自我发展,而自我发展实质上是教师自身素质的提高,就中西方教育进行比较,我们可以清楚地看到,中国传统教育存在“两强两弱”的特点。所谓“两强”,指基础知识的传授和应试能力的培养较强;所谓“两弱”,指创新能力和实践能力的培养比较薄弱。这种特征无疑也体现在英语教师身上。中学英语教师的自我发展非常重要,它直接关系到中学英语教学的质量。中学英语教师的自我发展应采取自主性原则,不断接受新的理念,勇于创新,提高自己的实践能力。其发展方向为:思想上、专业上、和教师职业的专业化程度上。其方式方法为反思和行动研究。中学英语教师的自我发展其实质就是教师自身素质的提高,从经验型转变为科研型,从教书匠变为教育家。也就是说,每个教师的教学实践应是理论指导下的实践。

参考文献

陈冠英,2000. 《谈外语教师的素质》

Michael J. Wallace, 1998. Action Research for Language Teachers

.《基础教育课程纲要(试行)》

.《普通高中课程方案(实验)》

戚建庄、金发的《素质教育研究》,河南人民出版社,1996年。

Garth Boomer:Education for the 21st Century Press 1992年

作者单位: 浙江省东阳市巍山高中

Advance English 第一册第一单元

报告厅

本单元的中心话题是校园生活,语言技能和语言知识也都是围绕校园生活这一中心话题设计的。Welcome to the unit版块介绍了英国校园生活的四个方面,引出话题,让学生对中国中学校园生活和英国中学校园生活进行比较,通过Reading和阅读练习,来提高学生略读(skimming)和搜读(scanning)两个方面的阅读能力。Word power版块强化了校园设施、活动器材等方面词汇的学习。在Grammar and usage版块中,学习定语从句的基本概念,关系代词和关系副词的功能,并重点学习关系代词that, which, who, whom 及whose的用法。接下来的Task版块主要介绍了校园的一些活动,在了解这些活动的同时,来练习听、说、读、写几个方面的技能,让学生学会如何谈论校园活动以及写一份举办某一活动的通知。在Project部分,通过学习两篇介绍关于学校俱乐部的文章,学会设计一份关于创办一个新校园俱乐部的海报。学生通过本单元后面的Self-assessment版块,来对本单元所学各个项目进行自我评价,为下一步学习制定行动计划。

本单元要求掌握的词汇和短语主要有:attend, earn, respect, achieve, grade, literature, average, challenging, lunchtime, e-mail, extra, cooking, prepare, drop, woodwork, miss, dessert, field, experience, article, penfriend, introduce, immediately, former, recently, culture, develop, photograph, donate, gift, display, kindness, guest, speech, flat, bookcase, attention, please, title, dynasty, cover, recent, professor, regret, inform, run, host, approve, broadcast, preparation, close, outing, continue, poet, generation, poem, select, require, scary, nature, for free, pay attention to, make preparations for 。语法项目主要掌握定语从句的基本概念、关系代词和关系副词的基本功能以及关系代词that, which, who, whom及whose的用法。

学习频道

1. Going to a British school for one year has been a very enjoyable and exciting experience for me.

此句中going to a British school for one year为动名词短语,做句子的主语。如:

Playing with fire is dangerous. 玩火很危险。

有时可用形式主语it,而将动名词短语放在后面。如:

It’s no use arguing with him. 同他争论是没用的。

2. He also told us that the best way to earn respect from the school was to work hard and achieve high grades.

此句中不定式短语to earn respect是 way的后置定语,修饰way。如:

There is nothing to worry about.没什么可担心的。

I have something to tell you. 我有事要告诉你。

I have a pen to write with.我有一支可写字的钢笔。

way作“方式,方法”讲时,其后常跟to do sth.或of doing sth.作定语,两种形式基本相同。 如:

I had no way to get in touch with him.我无法跟他取得联系。

Soon he got used to the American ways of doing things.不久他就习惯了美国式的做法。

此句中另一个不定式短语to work hard and achieve high grades作 that引导的宾语从句中的表语。如:

His job is to water the flowers. 他的工作就是浇花。

To see is to believe.眼见为实。

3. Though it didn’t look like a table when it was finished, I still liked it very much.

此句为though引导的让步状语从句,意为“虽然,尽管”,用法同although,引导的从句既可放在主句之前,又可放在主句之后,注意主句不能再用but引导。如:

We went out, though it was raining.虽然下着雨,我们仍然出去了。

Though they are poor, they buy a great many books.尽管他们穷,他们还是买许多书。

though从句的动词如果与主句为同一动词,则有时可省略主语与动词。如:

He was happy, though poor.他虽然穷,却很快乐。

though有时可用作副词,意为“可是,但是”,通常置于句尾或插入句中。如:

It was hard work; I enjoyed it,though.那工作很辛苦,但是我却喜欢。

There’s no excuse, though, for hurting her feelings.伤到她的感情一事,还是不可原谅。

4. This is about the average size for British schools.

此句中的average为形容词,意为“平均的,一般的”,如:the average age emperature,平均年龄气温。另外,average还可用作名词,意为“平均数,平均水平”,常见的短语有: an average of…平均(有)…;on (the) average平均,一般说来;aboveelow (the) average在平均水平以上以下

5. Going to a British school for one year has been a very enjoyable and exciting experience for me.

I was very lucky to experience this different way of life.

第一句中的experience为可数名词,意为“经历”。如:

Our journey by camel was quite an experience.我们骑骆驼旅行真是一次令人难忘的经历。 He will make a speech about his experiences in China. 他将做一个演讲,讲述他在中国的经历。

当experience作“经验”讲时,通常用作不可数名词。如:

He has a lot of teaching experience.他有许多教学经验。

第二句中的experience用作动词,意为“经历,感受”。如:

Have you ever experienced real hunger?你体验过真正的饥饿吗?

He experienced many difficulties during his study in Britain.在英国学习时,他经历过许多困难。

experienced为形容词形式,意为“有经验的”,常构成的短语有: an experienced doctor 一个有经验的医生;be experienced inat 对…有经验。

6. She seems to be a person who can’t pay attention to one thing for long.

此句中的pay attention to 意为“注意”,其中的to为介词。如:

He didn’t pay attention to me.=He paid no attention to me. 他没有注意到我。

Too much attention was paid to the details.太过于注意细节了。

attention常构成的短语还有:attractdrawcatch one’s attention吸引某人的注意力;

focus one’s attention on集中注意力于…; turn one’s attention to将注意力转向…。

7. We regret to inform you that our library will be closed next Wednesday, Tuesday and Friday for the sports meeting.

此句中的regret为动词,意为“遗憾,抱歉”,常用结构有: regret to say tell you inform you that…或regret that…。如:

I regret to tell you that I can’t come today.=I regret that I can’t come today.我很遗憾今天不能来了。

当regret作“后悔”讲时,常说 regret sth.egret (not) doing sth.egret that…。如;

He regretted his carelessness.他对自己的粗心大意感到懊悔。

=He regretted having been careless.

=He regretted that he had been careless.

另外,regret还可用作名词,意为“遗憾,后悔”,常用短语有: without regret 没有后悔;feel regret感到后悔;to one’s regret(对某人而言)可惜的是…。

8. Cooking was really fun as I learned how to buy, prepare and cook food.

During exam time we have a special programme that tells students the things they should or shouldn’t do for preparation.

第一句中的prepare为及物动词,意为“准备”, prepare sth.意思是“准备某事,做某事”。另外,prepare还可用作不及物动词,prepare for sth.意思是“为…做准备”。

When I got home, mother was preparing supper.当我到家时,母亲正在做晚饭。

People are busy preparing for the new year.人们正在忙着为新年做好准备。

短语be prepared for 意为“为…做好准备”,意思同be ready for ,强调一种状态。如;We are well prepared for the exam now. 现在我们已为考试做好了充分的准备。

第二句中的preparation是prepare的名词形式,常见的短语有:make preparations for为…做准备(意思同prepare for,其中preparations常用复数形式); in preparation在准备中; in preparation for作为…的准备。

9. I was required to write a poem and I had to read it out to group.

此句中的require用作动词,意为“要求“,常用作 require sb.to do sth.或require that sb. (should) do sth.,意思是“要求某人做某事”。如:

He required me to attend the meeting.他要求我参加会议。

=I was required to attend the meeting.

=He required that I (should) attend the meeting.

另外,require 还可做“需要”讲,意思和用法跟need相似,常用作 require sth.或

require + v-ing ,意思是“需要(被)…”。如:

This suggestion requires careful thought.这条建议需要仔细考虑。

This wall requires repairing.这面墙需要修理。

10. First of all, let me introduce myself to you.

此句中的introduce是动词,意为“介绍”,常用在introduce sb.( to sb.)结构中,意思是“(向某人)介绍某人”。如:

May I introduce my friend George to you? 向你介绍我的朋友乔治好吗?

introduce也可作“引进”讲,常用在introduce sth. into o some place结构中,意思是“把某物引进到某地来”。如:

New Paris fashions are introduced into Shanghai every year. 巴黎的新流行式样每年都被引进到上海。

另外,还可作“引导初学者认识…”讲,常用在introduce sb. to sth.结构中。如:

The teacher introduced his young pupils to computer science. 这位老师引导他的学生了解计算机科学。

教你一招: 何时只用关系代词that?

that和which在指物的情况下一般都可以互换, 但在下列情况下, 一般用that而不用which。

①当先行词为all, much, little, few, none, something, anything, everything, nothing等不定代词时,如:

a. All that can be done has been done.

b. I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow.

c. There is little (that) the enemy can do besides surrender

② 先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much修饰时。

I’ve read all the books that are not mine.

③先行词是序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。

This is the best book (that) I’ve ever read.

This is the first composition (that) he has written in English.

④先行词被the only, the very, the last 修饰时。

That white flower is the only one (that) I really like.

This is the very book (that) I have been looking for.

⑤ 当有两个或两个以上分别表示人和物的先行词时,这个定语从句要用that而不用who (whom)和which引导。如:

He talked about the teachers and schools (that) he had visited.

⑥以who, which, what 开头的疑问句,定语从句用that而不用who, (whom)和which引导。

Who is the person that is standing at the gate?

Which of us that knows something about physics does not know this?

What that is on the table belongs to me?

⑦ 当关系代词在从句中作表语时。

Mary is no longer the girl (that) she used to be.

巩固练习:

1. All ________ is useful to us is good.

A. which B. what C. that D. whether

2. This is the very factory ________we visited last year.

A. that B. which C. what D. the one

3. The text is one of the most interesting stories ________ learnt in the past three days.

A. that have B. that have been C. which has D. which has been

4. This is the only thing ________ I can do now.

A. what B. which C. that D. all

5. I saw the boy and his dog ________ were walking in the park.

A. which B. that C. who D. whom

6. Which is the book ________ you borrowed from the library.

A. which B. what C. whom D. that

7. China is no longer the country ________ it used to be.

A.what B.which C. who D. that

巩固练习参考答案:(CABCBDD)

单元知识点专项练习:

I. 单词拼写(根据首字母提示写出该单词的适当形式):

1. They had a quiet wedding(婚礼) - only a few friends a_______ it.

2. As students, we should show r_______ for our teachers.

3. Mary is interested in the classical (古典的) l_______ of France.

4. Department stores d_______ their goods in the windows.

5. The boy is brave enough to accept the c_______ job.

6. Before Christmas, the bus company provided e_______ buses because there were so many people.

7. I knew there were problems, but I was not p_______ for this.

8. He had many interesting e_______ while traveling in Africa.

9. Keeping a p_______ is a good way of practising your writing.

10. The headmaster i_______ a new teacher to the students yesterday morning.

11. I haven’t seen her r_______ and I don’t know how she is getting along with her book.

12. Your garden looks so beautiful! May I take a p_______ of it?

13. The White House didn’t a_______ the plan until recently.

14. The football game was b_______ on TV and millions of people watched it.

15. This custom (风俗) has been handed down from one g_______ to another.

II. 单项选择:

1. Have you seen the famous writer ________?

A. that our teacher told B. who our teacher told you

C. our teacher told you of D. our teacher told you of him

2. Much attention should ________ science and technology.

A. pay to develop B. pay to developing

C. be paid to develop D. be paid to developing

3. What they are doing is ________ some money.

A. more than donating B. much than to donate

C. more than to donate D. much than donating

4. David thought a while and then decided to ________ the meeting.

A. attend to B. join C. take part in D. attend

5. I never feel ________ in his company.

A. easily B. at ease C. comfortably D. pleasing

6. English is spoken as the native language in countries ________ Britain, the USA, Canada and Australia.

A. for example B. as C. like D. in other words

7. His health was getting worse and he regretted _______ his doctor’s advice. A. not to have taken B. not having taken

C. to have not taken D. having not taken

8. All the students ________ three tests in English literature.

A. require to take B. require taking C. are required to take D. are required taking

9. Beijing, ________ the 2008 Olympic Games, calls on all its citizens to learn English.

A. are preparing for hosting B. are prepared to host C. are prepared for hosting D. preparing for hosting

10. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ________ it more difficult.

A. to make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make

11. I expect you are right - I’ll ask him, _______.

A. though B. although C. as though D. even though

12. – What do you think made him so upset?

–________.

A. He lost his new bike. B. Because he lost his new bike. C. Having lost his new bike. D. Because of losing his new bike.

13. Mr. Green knows how to deal with children well. He has ________ in a primary school.

A. ten years’ experience in teaching B. ten years’ experiences in teaching C. ten years’ experience to teach D. ten years’ experiences to teach

14. The mother ________ her daughter’s safe arrival.

A. informed of B. was informed on C. informed on D. was informed of

15. What do you think of the way ________ this problem.

A. he thought of solving B. that he thought to solve C. he thought of to solve D. which he thought solving

III. 句型转换(每空一词,注意保持句意一致):

1. While in Britain, he became interested in teaching Chinese to English students.

When he was in Britain, he ______ ______ ______ ______ teaching Chinese to English.

2. Students at that school can give up some subjects if they don’t like them.

Students at that school can ______ some subjects ______ they don’t like.

3. I usually went to the computer club at lunchtime, so I could get in touch with my friends by e-mail without paying any money.

I usually went to the computer club at lunchtime, so I could ______my friends ______ ______.

4. Tom is six years old this year and old enough to go to school.

Tom is six years old this year and old enough to ______ ______.

5. An average of 20 students went abroad to go on with their English studies in this school

each year from 1998 to 2004.

______ ______, there were 20 students who went abroad to ______ their English studies in this school from 1998 to 2004.

6. John used to be a lazy boy, but now he isn’t.

John is ______ ______ the lazy boy ______ he used to be.

7. Mary has a very good friend, but I can’t remember her name.

Mary has a ______ friend ______ ______ I can’t remember.

8. As soon as he finished his studies, he started traveling in China.

______ ______ his studies, he started traveling in China.

9. When David returned to Britain 2 months ago, he brought many books back from China and gave them to his school library for free.

When David returned to Britain 2 months ago, he ______ the books ______ he brought back from China ______ his school library.

10. After the journey his clothes looked so dirty and needed to be washed.

After the journey his clothes looked so dirty and ______ ______.

11. When you rang me up last Friday, I was busy preparing for traveling to China with my parents.

When you rang me up last Friday, I was busy ______ ______ ______ traveling to China with my parents.

12. Each day our canteen serves three meals, and you can also buy soft drinks during break times.

Each day our canteen serves three meals, and soft drinks ______ also ______.

IV. 单句改错:

1. The teacher brought in a boy and introduced him for us. ________

2. That morning I got up an hour later than usually as I had no classes. ________

3. The homework here is not as heavy as I was used to get in my old school. ________

4. Man can’t go against the nature without being punished. ________

5. The boy who you saw him at the school gate was from the UK. ________

6. This is the most interesting book which I have ever read. ________

7. Father was sitting on the sofa at ease while mother was preparing for lunch. ________

8. More equipments has been introduced into our school since last year. ________

9. Though the family was very poor, but the parents wanted their daughter to continue her studies. ________

10. Mary is the only one of the girls who were invited to the party last Sunday.

V. 根据所给单词或短语完成句子:

1. 每周一早晨,所有同学都被要求参加集会.(require, attend)

2. 最后他通过努力工作达到了目标.(achieve one’s goal)

3. 我没花钱从别人手里拿到了这张票,他不想要.(for free)

4. 谁被选中来朗读这篇课文的?(select)

5. 对于如何经营商店,他一无所知.(run)

6. 这个孩子从未受过善待.(experience)

单元知识点专项练习参考答案:

I. 单词拼写:

1.attended 2.respect 3.literature 4.display 5.challenging 6.extra 7.prepared 8.experiences 9.penfriend 10.introduced 11.recently 12.photograph 13.approve 14.broadcast 15.generation

II. 单项选择:

1---5.CDADB 6---10.CBCDB 11---15.ACADC

III. 句型转换

1.developed an interest in 2.drop, that 3.e-mail, for free 4.attend school 5.On average , continue 6.no longer, that 7.close, whose name 8.UponOn finishing 9.donated, which hat, to 10.requiredeeded washing 11.making preparations for 12.are, available

IV. 单句改错:

1.for改为to 2.usually改为usual 3.去掉was 4.去掉the 5.去掉him 6.去掉which 或把which 改为that 7.去掉for 8.equipments改为equipment 9.去掉but 10.were 改为was

V. 根据所给单词或短语完成句子:

1. Every Monday morning, all the students are required to attend assembly.

2. Finally he achieved his goal by working hard.

3. I got this ticket for free from somebody who didn’t want it.

4. Who has been selected to read out this text?

5. He knows nothing about how to run a shop.

6. This child has never experienced kindness.

Unit 6 Going West 同步讲解

点击词汇表

1.apply sth to sth 运用,应用某事物

The results of this research can be applied to new developments in technology.

这项研究成果能应用于新的技术开发方面。

I’d never apply the word “readable” to any of his books.

我决不会把他的任何一本书称为是“可以一读的”。

apply (to sb) (for sth) 申请,请求

We’ve applied to a charitable organization for a grant for the project.

我们已向一个慈善机构提出申请,要求其为这个项目提供资助。

apply to sb/sth 与某人/某物有关;有效;适用

What I have said applies only to some of you.

我所说的仅仅适用于你们中的部分人。

apply oneself/sth to sth/doing sth 集中精力(做事);专心

You will only pass your exams if you really apply yourself to your work/studying.

你只有真正专心致志学习,考试才能及格。

2.adapt (sth/oneself) to sth 适应新环境等

Many software companies have adapted popular programs to the new operating system.

许多软件公司改编通用程序以适应新的操作系统。

The good thing about children is that they adapt very easily to new environment.

儿童的好处在于他们可以很容易地适应新环境。

adapt sth for sb/sth 使某事物适合于新的用途、情况等;修改某事物

The play had been adapted for children.

该剧已被改编适合儿童观看。

3.add (sth) up 加起来

The waiter can’t add up.

这个服务员不会算账。

Add up all the money I owe you.

把我应付你的钱都加在一起。

add up to ... 总计,总共;相等于;意为

These numbers add up to 100.

这些数目合计为100。

These clues don’t really add up to very much.

这些线索没什么实际意义。

4.lose heart 泄气,灰心

Don't lose heart even if you fail in the exam.

考试中即使失败了也不要失去信心。

5.take it/things easy 放松;不过分努力

I like to take it easy when I’m on holiday.

我在假日里愿意轻松一些。

6.keep sth up 继续使某事物保持同样的(通常指高的)水平;不让(精力等)衰退,维持,保持;遵守某事物;保养,维修(房屋,花园等)

When I stopped studying, I was still keen to keep up French.

我不读书了,可还是很想坚持学法语。

They sang songs to keep their morale up.

他们唱着歌以保持高昂的士气。

Wherever Jews live together, they keep up old customs.

犹太人聚居的地方,古老的风俗都在沿袭着。

The house is becoming too expensive for them to keep up.

他们的房子维修费用贵得他们越来越维修不起了。

7.beyond prep. 在或向(某物)的远处;迟于或超过(某一时间);越过(某事物)范围;除了

The road continues beyond the village up into the hills.

这条路绵延不断越过村子直入山中。

She carried on teaching well beyond retirement age.

她早已超过退休年龄仍在教书。

After 25 years the town centre had changed beyond recognition.

25年过去了,市中心已变得认不出来。

I didn’t notice anything beyond his rather strange accent.

除了他那颇为古怪的口音以外,我没注意到别的。

8.burden n. 重负;(难以承担的)职责、义务、责任等

The little donkey struggled under its heavy burden.

小驴在重负下挣扎。

Buying a house often places a big financial burden on young couples.

对于年轻夫妇来说,买房通常是一种沉重的经济负担。

burden (v.) sb/oneself (with sth) 加负担于某人(自己)

I don’t want to burden you with my problems.

我不想用我的问题给你增加负担。

9.accustomed adj. 惯常的,习惯的

This is not the kind of treatment I’m accustomed to.

这不是我惯常受到的那种待遇。

10.on all fours 双手和双膝着地,趴着

The baby was crawling about on all fours.

婴儿那时正在满地爬。

11.deliver v. 递送,传送(信件、包裹、货物等);给予,发表

We’re having pizza delivered to where we live for dinner tonight.

我们让人把比萨饼送上门,今晚当晚饭吃。

The priest delivered a passionate speech against war.

牧师发表了一篇充满激情的反战演说。

12.go for 得到;争取

She tripped me as I went for the ball.

我接球时她把我绊倒了。

Are you planning to go for the scholarship to Harvard University?

你打算争取上哈佛的奖学金吗?

词语辨析

1.quit; stop; pause

这些词都有“停止”的意思,但意思各有侧重。“quit”除表示停止,更常用于表示离开某处或工作,辞职不干;“stop”是常用词,表示使人或事物的活动、进展、操作等停止,中止或暂停,另外还可以表示阻止的意思;“pause”则侧重于中止、暂停或停顿的意思。

I’m going to quit smoking next week.

下星期我准备戒烟。

Would you quit your job if you got lots of money?

如果得到大笔钱,你会不会辞去工作呢?

He stopped the medicine and left the room.

他停下机器,离开了房间。

You can’t stop our going if we want to.

如果我们想去,你是阻止不了的。

She paused to get her breath back and then carried on jogging.

她停下喘口气然后继续慢跑。

2.believe; believe in

“believe”意思是相信某事物的真实性或认为某人的话属实;“believe in”意思是相信某事物或人,以及肯定某事物的价值或正确性,还可以表示相信某人或事物的存在。

Strangely, no one believed us when we told them we’d been visited by a creature from Mars.

奇怪的是,当我们告诉他们一个火星人来过时,居然没人相信。

I’m told he’s been in prison, and I can well believe it.

有人对我说他进过监狱,我完全能够相信这一点。

The robbers are believed to have escaped form Heathrow Airport.

据说强盗从西斯罗机场逃脱的。

He believes in getting plenty of exercise.

他相信多做运动必有好处。

I believe in his good character, no matter what you say.

不管你怎么说,我相信他品德良好。

Do you believe in ghosts?

你相信有鬼吗?

难句分析

1.The animals dragged their legs, too weak to ... their tongues hung out ... (L12, Para.3)

这句话中的两个划线部分都在文章中充当状语,第一个是形容词短语做状语,并用“too ... to ...(太...... 而不能......)”结构加以修饰;第二个划线部分由名词加过去分词(表示被动)构成,称为独立主格结构,该结构还可以由名词加现在分词、不定式、形容词、副词或介词短语构成。

例:Little Mary was standing in front of the headmaster, too afraid to say a word.

小玛丽站在校长面前,因为太害怕而说不出一句话。

The test finished, we began our holiday.

考试结束了,我们开始放假。

Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow. 

如果天气允许,我们明天去看你。

The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier. 

会议结束后,每个人都想早点回家。

He came into the room, his ears red with cold.

他回到了房子里,耳朵冻坏了。

He came out of the library, a large book under his arm.

他夹着本厚书,走出了图书馆

2.Lying around them were chains ... (L3, Para. 4)

这是一个表语提前的完全倒装句,句子的主语是“chains”,”Lying around them”为表语。

例:Gone are the days when they would do what they liked.

他们可以随心所欲的日子过去了。

Present at the meeting were Professor White, Professor Smith and many other guests.

出席会议的有怀特教授、史密斯教授以及其他的客人。

3.If untreated, it would produce ... (P. 53)

这句话涉及两种语言现象,“if untreated”为状语从句的省略:当特定的连词when, while, if, although, even though等引导的状语从句中的主语与主句的主语一致时,并且从句中出现be动词,可以省略状语从句的主语连同be动词,留下连词加分词的形式;而主语的“it would”则使用了虚拟语气中的非真实条件句,表示未来事情发生的几率不是很高。这句话说完整应为“If it were untreated, it would produce ...”。

例:Don’t speak to me unless spoke to.

除非我和你说话,否则不要和我说话。

Look out while crossing the street.

过马路时要当心。

If my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going.

  如果我的律师上星期六在这里,他会阻止我去的。

If you should succeed, everything would be all right.

  如果你成功了,一切都会好的。

If they were here, they would give you some advice.

如果他们现在在这里,他们就会给你一些建议了。

经典例析

1. Suddenly, a tall man driving a golden carriage ________ the girl and took her away, ________ into the woods. (2004上海春季卷)

A. seizing, disappeared B. seized, disappeared

C. seizing, disappearing D. seized, disappearing

[为你支招]本句中“drive”做定语修饰主语,“seize”是谓语动词,并与后面的“take”并列,所以应该用过去时形式;“disappear”放在句面,使用分词形式充当状语,该词为不及物动词,应使用现在分词形式。答案为D。

[热点剖析]该题考查了学生确定谓语动词的能力,同时也考查了分词作定语和状语的用法。

2. My sister met him at the Grand Theatre yesterday afternoon, so he ________ your lecture. (2000上海卷)

A. couldn’t have attended B. needn’t have attended

C. mustn’t have attended D. shouldn’t have attended

[为你支招]根据上句所提供的语境,可以判断出“他不可能听了你的讲座”,并且这件事发生在昨天下午,所以选择答案A,表示对过去的否定性猜测。B的意思为“本不必做”,C的形式不存在,D的意思为“本不应该做”。

[热点剖析]该题考查了学生使用情态动词表示猜测的能力。

3. ---- Are you still thinking about yesterday’s game?

---- Oh, that’s ________. (2003北京春季卷)

A. what makes me feel excited B. whatever I feel excited about

C. how I feel about it D. when I feel excited

[为你支招]本题四个选项均为名词性从句,充当表语,语法结构都是正确的;解题关键是根据上句判断出意思符合的选项。答案为A.

[热点剖析]该题考查了学生在语法正确的情况下,根据语境选择答案的能力。

4. I can think of many cases ________ students obviously knew a lot of English words and expressions but couldn’t write a good essay. (2003上海卷)

A. why B. which

C. as D. where

[为你支招]本题主句完整,从句完整,根据选项,可以判断出此处需要一个关系副词连接主句和定语从句;根据先行词“case”,应选择答案D,表示“在这些情况下”,也可使用“in which”。

[热点剖析]该题考查了学生根据语境选择定语从句连接词的能力。

5. They ________ on the program for almost one week before I joined them, and now we ________ it as no good results have come out so far. (2005江苏卷)

A. had been working; are still working B. had worked; were still working

C. have been working; have worked D. have worked; are still working

[为你支招]本题中前一个空格发生的动作在“我加入”之前,并且延续了一段时间,所以使用过去完成进行时;后一个空格表示目前正在进行的动作,使用现在进行时。答案为A.

[热点剖析]该题考查了学生正确运用谓语动词时态的能力。

每周一练

一、单项选择

1. I’m not accustomed to ________.

A. treating like this B. being treated like this C. be treated like this D. treat like this

2. The Russian relay team will again be ________ the gold medal at the Olympic Games.

A. going after B. going on with C. going for D. going against

3. I was made to write a composition in English, but I don’t know ________.

A. what to write about B. how to begin with C. how to write about D. what to write

4. The temple is on the top of the mountain, ________ is hard ________.

A. it, to reach B. which; to arrive at C. which; to be got to D. that; to be arrived at

5. You are wet all over. You ________ in the rain.

A. may be caught B. must have caught C. must catch D. must have been caught

6. ________ earlier, I could have done something.

A. Have I been informed B. Had I been informed

C. I have been informed D. If I have been informed

7. They should be asked to give their reasons ________ without our permission.

A. to enter B. entering C. for them to enter D. for entering

8. I ________ a policy that redirects the money used for war and military spending to provide healthcare, education, housing, and jobs

A. stand for B. go in for C. give up D. share with

9. ---- Does Nancy do her new job well?

---- ________ her old job. I think she is hopeless.

A. Not better than B. No better than C. Not so good as D. Not as well as

10. Not only the astronauts but also the dog has returned ________ from the space journey.

A. alive B. lived C. live D. life

11. I have no idea ________ they have kept in touch with each other by writing email.

A. what B. how long C. why D. when

12. I’ll go to Tom’s. Do you have any message _______ to him?

A. to deliver B. to be delivered C. being delivered D. be delivered

13. On the ground ________ who had been starved to death.

A. an old man lay B. lay an old man C. was lying an old man D. .an old man lying

14. Is it the Guangming Theatre ________ you are going to watch Beijing Opera.

A. where B. that C. which D. in that

15. He was lying on his back in the bed, his eyes ________,

A. wide opening B. wide open C. open widely D. wide opened

16. You can’t go out in the evening ________ to.

A. until allowed B. unless agreed C. unless allowed D. until agreed

17. Mother ________ before she goes to bed every night.

A. makes sure to turn off all the lights C. makes sure all the lights will be turned off

C. makes sure that all the lights are off D. makes sure of all the lights be off

18. She’s been ________ cancer for two years.

A. suffered B. suffering of C. suffering from D. suffered from

19. I like ________ when it rains on a summer morning.

A. it B. that C. which D. this

20. The suggestion has been made ________ the basketball game ________ put off.

A. for, to B. that, be C. which, should be D. that, will be

二、根据汉语完成句子

1. We must ________ (运用)our minds to finding a solution.

2. ________(比较)house prices in the two areas, you’ll be amazed how different they are.

3. Jim was asked by his father to remain optimistic and ________(不要灰心)。

4. Jobs are hard to find, but ________ (就他而言)that’s not the problem because he has so much experience.

5. I loving driving along narrow country roads that ________ (排成行)trees.

6. We had to ________ (修改)our plans to fit Jack’s timetable.

7. ________(1988年冬天),Candy gave birth to a daughter, her fifty child.

8. The river is quite busy, with ________(各式各样的船只来来往往).

9. All things, both good and bad, must ________ (结束).

10. The match ________ (中止)at half-time because of the poor weather conditions.

三、根据所给短语翻译下列句子。

1.那个男人在事故中严重受伤,现在他的生命处于危急中。(at stake)

2.他们要向公众表明,他们在做一件重要而又必要的工作。(make … clear)

3.原料费用昂贵使得产品价格居高不下。(keep … up)

4.他每周都给母亲写信。(fail to)

5.我把门锁上,以便我们可以继续讨论而不受打扰。(so that, without)

6.保罗从不为任何事犹豫,他只是尽力去争取。(go for)

7.我想门已经锁上了,但我最好还是去确认一下。(make sure)

8.你要是想赶上那班火车,咱们必须马上动身去火车站。(set off)

9.这种情况下,重新检查病人的记录尤其重要。(in this case)

10.司机在红绿灯处把车停住。(pull up)

四、根据适当的词组填空。

share with, stand for, get accustomed to, come to an end, hang out, lose one’s way, believe in,

be honest with, apply for, leave behind,

1. You don’t have to ________ that sort of behaviour from him-he’s not your boss.

2. At first we ________ in the forest, but after three hours we managed to find the right way out.

3. I ________ the fundamental goodness of human nature.

4. Our house isn’t big enough for the children each to have their own room, so they each have to ________ someone else.

5. It’ll take time for me to ________ the new school.

6. By the time I saw the job advertised it was too late to ________ it.

7. Since liberation, peasants’ suffering days have ________.

8. She was ________ her washing on the line.

9. To ________ you, I don’t think we have a chance of winning.

10. Since she began to work, she’s ________ that kind of student life.

五、单句改错。

1. I saw your name on a list of teacher who wished to spend their holidays in France this summer.

2. One of the students who were sitting in front gave a different answer to the question.

3. The mixture of coffee, milk, and sugar tastes differently from tea.

4. It was a long time since I saw Tom at my uncle’s and I don’t know where he’s been these months.

5. We’ve missed the last bus. We have no choice but walk home.

6. She had a feeling that the sad-looking man was not a person she could trust or talk.

7. No person can really be happy who are not trying to give happiness to others.

8. The first two questions in the test paper were difficult, but the rest was easy.

9. What modern science and technology helps the society progress is a fact accepted by most people.

10. Playing football not only makes us grow tall and strong but also give us a sense of fair play and team spirit.

答案:

一、1-5 BCABD 6-10 BDABA 11-15 BBBAB 16-20 CCCAB

二、1. apply 2. Comparing 3. not to lose heart 4. in his case 5. are lined with 6. adapt

7. In the winter of 1988, 8. all kinds of ships coming and going 9. come to an end 10. was abandoned

三、1. The life of the man, who got seriously injured in the accident, is now at stake.

2. They want to make it clear to the public that they are doing an important and necessary job.

3. The high cost of raw materials is keeping prices up.

4. He never fails to write to his mother week after week.

5. I locked the door so that we could continue to discuss without being disturbed.

6. Paul never hesitated about anything, and he just went for what he wanted.

7. I believe the door has been locked, but I’d better go and make sure.

8. If you want to catch the train, we have to set off for the railway station at once.

9. In this case, it’s got extremely important to review the patient’s records.

10. The driver pulled up at the traffic lights.

四、1. stand for; 2. lost our way; 3. believe in; 4. share with; 5. get accustomed to; 6. apply for;

7. come to an end; 8. hanging out; 9. be honest with; 10. left behind

五、1. teacher→teachers; 2. in∧the; 3. differently→different; 4. was→is; 5. but∧to;

6. talk∧to; 7. are→is; 8. was→were; 9. What→That; 10. give→gives

语法专项练习----定语

单项选择:

1. He has made another wonderful discovery, ________ of great importance to science.

A. which I think is B. which I think it is

C. of which I think it is D. I think which is

2. ---- Can you tell me anything about the fire ________ last night?

---- I’m afraid, ________.

A. that broke out, very little B. broke out, just a little

C. happened, only a little D. taking place, a little

3. The picture ________ on the wall is painted by my nephew.

A. having hung B. hanging

C. hangs D. being hung

4. With the little ________ money, the child told me in a ________ voice that on the way home, most of his money had been stolen.

A. remained, trembled B. remaining, trembling

C. remaining, trembled D. remained, trembleing

5. We have heard of Thomas Edison, ________ who invented the electric light and many other things.

A. man B. a man

C. the man D. what

6. ---- Will you please ________ the new teacher for us?

---- I’m glad to. He’s a ________ man with good manners.

A. describe, handsome tall young B. introduce, tall young handsome

C. say, handsome young tall D. tell, young handsome tall

7. As many students ________ were present agreed to my plan.

A. who B. that

C. which D. as

8. The problem ________ at present has something important to do with our working conditions.

A. discuss B. to be discussing

C. being discussed D. to discuss

9. People need houses ________ and food ________.

A. to live, to eat B. to live in, to eat

C. living, eating D. to live in, to be eaten

10. You’d better think of ________ possibilities before doing it.

A, such these B. these all

C. all such D. such all

11. If I had ________, I’d visit Europe, stopping at all the small interesting places.

A. a long enough holiday B. an enough long holiday

C. a holiday enough long D. a long holiday enough

12. They could only read such stories ________ had been rewritten in simple English.

A. that B. which

C. as D. what

13. She studied hard when she was in school, ________ contributes greatly to her career.

A. that B. so

C. so that D. which

14. You can come to see me from one to two o’clock, ________ I will stay at home.

A. during the time B. during that time

C. during which time D. during which

15. This accident took place on a ________ morning in September.

A. Sunder cold rainy B. rainy Sunday cold

C. rainy cold Sunday D. cold rainy Sunday,

16. Shanghai has a ________ population of over ten million.

A. complete B. whole

C. total D. all

17. ---- I’m going to Beijing next week. Do you have anything ________ there?

---- No, but thank you all the same.

A. taken B. to take

C. taking D. to be taken

18. We held the meeting in a meeting room, ________ 2000 people.

A. holding B. held

C. to hold D. which was held

19. When lost in work, ________ he often was, he would forget all about eating and sleeping.

A. which B. so

C. just like D. as

20. Is it the country ________ you studied ________ you are going to visit next week?

A. in which, which B. where, that

C. that, that D. which, that

答案:1-5 AABCC 6-10 ADCBC 11-15ACDCD 16-20CDADB

高考试题链接

1. The place ________ the bridge is supposed to be built should be ________ the cross-river traffic is the heaviest. (2005江苏卷)

A. which, where B. at which, which

C. at which, where D. which, in which

2. ________ about wild plants that they decided to make a trip to Madagascar for further research. (2005江苏卷)

A. So curious the couple was B. So curious were the couple

C. How curious the couple were D. The couple was such curious

3. All the rooms are ________ with electric lights. (1995上海卷)

A. supplied B. given

C. offered D. burnt

4. The research is so designed that once ________ nothing can be done to change it. (2002全国卷)

A. begins B. having begun

C. beginning D. begun

5. With a lot of difficult problems ________, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. (2002上海春季卷)

A. settled B. settling

C. to settle D. being settled

6. The old couple have been married for 40 years and never once ________ with each other. (2003全国卷)

A. they had quarrelled B. they have quarrelled

C. have they quarrelled D. had they quarrelled

7. Mr. Smith, ________ of the ________ speech, started to read a novel. (2003北京春季卷)

A. tired, boring B. tiring, bored

C. tired, bored D. tiring, boring

8. I was really anxious about you. You ________ home without a word. (2001全国卷)

A. mustn’t leave B. shouldn’t have left

C. couldn’t have left D. needn’t leave

9. It was an exciting moment for these football fans this year, ________ for the first time in years their team won the World Cup. (2000北京春季卷)

A. that B. while

C. which D. when

10. Unless ________ to speak, you should remain silent at the conference. (2003上海卷)

A. invited B. inviting

C. being invited D. having inviting

答案: 1-5 CBADC 6-10 CABDA

Unit 14 Zoology

Step 1 Fast reading

Answer the following questions

1. How do honey bees communicate with each other? (Para 3)

2. What information do the two dances convey? (Para 4)

True or False:

( ) 1. Von Frisch and his co-workers counted hoe many times the bees repeated the wagging dance during one hour.

( ) 2. They discovered that the farther away the feeding station was, the faster the dance was.

( ) 3. The number of wagging dances per minute told the direction to the feeding place.

( ) 4. Then Professor Von Frisch did his third experiment, which was to discover whether the wagging dance showed direction.

( ) 5. He found that the straight part of the dance was the same in the morning from what it had been in the afternoon.

( ) 6. If the feeding place was toward the sun, the dance headed straight onward during the straight part of the wagging dance.

( ) 7. The experiment of Professor Karl Von Frisch tells us that bees can and do communicate with each other by their dances, which may be called a kind of “language”.

Suggested Answers: FFFTFFT

Step 2 Careful reading

make a summary of each part:

Part 1: (Para 1) Some basic knowledge about bees.

Part 2: (Paras 2-8) Professor Von Frisch’s experiment.

Part 3: (the last Para) The late life of Professor Von Frisch.

Choose the best answer

1.The scientist can research the language of the honeybees because of the development of ____ .D

A. the modern beehive B. experiment C. dishes of honey D. both A and B

2. The phrase “ tell the bees apart ” in Paragraph 2 means ______ . B

A. tell the bees separately

B. tell one bee from the other

C. drive the bees away

D. tear the bees into pieces

3. After the marked bees danced , the other bees _____ . D

A. danced together

B. became very excited

C. seemed not to noticed it

D. both A and B

4. Different dances indict different ______ . B

A. food B. feeding place C. steps D. semicircle

5. The phrase “ come to light ” in Paragraph 5 means _______ . A

A. become known

B. come to a bright place

C. turn bright

D. both A and B

6. The circle dances told the bees about ______ . A

A. the position of the feeding place

B. the distance of the feeding place

C. the amount of the food

D. all the information about food

7. The number of the wagging dances per minute told ______ . C

A. the position of the feeding place

B. the amount of the food

C. the distance of the feeding place

D. all the information about food

8.You can find the main idea of the test simply from _____ . A

A. the title

B. the first paragraph

C. the second paragraph

D. the last paragraph

9.Karl Von Frisch made an experiment to research ______ . C

A. the food of honeybees

B. the dance of honeybees

C. the ways honeybees communicate

D. the hive of honeybees

10. Which of the statements is possible according to the last paragraph? D

A. We human beings can communicate as honeybees do

B. We human beings can go as quickly as honeybees

C. We human beings can come to help each other in a fast way

D. We human beings can learn something from animal’s behavior

Step 3 Language points

1.tell ------ apart 识别,辨别 动副短语 常与can,could,be able to 连用。

eg. Can you tell the two things apart ? (tell apart the two things)

eg. The twins are so much alike that their own mother can not tell them apart.

tell -----from-----

2. one after another one by one

eg. They have solved problems one after another since they came.(强调数量之多)

eg. After class the students left the classroom silently one by one. (强调顺序)

3.They troop behind the first dancer, copying its movements.

troop Vi. 结队而行,成群涌向。 句子主语应是复数。

eg. The children trooped into the park.

eg. The game was over and the players trooped home.

n. 一群,许多。 军队(常用复数) A troop of visitors /students (a group of / a line of)

copy 模仿,效仿 eg. You should copy his strong points ,not his weak points.

4.What else else 常放在疑问代词或副词后面

who else ,where else ,nobody else ,anything else eg.Where else did he go?

注:所有格

5. faraway 遥远的   nearby  附近的 eg. a faraway forest a nearby hotel

faraway 作表语或状语用 far away , nearby 作表语或状语可用nearby, near by, near-by.

eg. The house is far away. eg. They live near-by less than a kilometer.

6. come to light 发现,暴露 (to be discovered)

eg.The money didn’t come to light until the old man died.

eg. New facts about the case have recently come to light.

注:come to light ,come about 中come 不用被动态

7.make a beeline for sp.  走直路,走近路

eg. As he spoke he made a beeline for the door.

eg. If you want catch with the team, you’d better make a beeline for them.

head for sp. eg. The ship is heading for London for repairs.

8.except/ except that /except for/ but/besides/apart from

eg. We all succeed _______ Tom.. (except)

eg.I looked everywhere _________ in the bedroom.. (except)

eg.He is a good man _______hot temper. (except for)

eg. Your article is quite good ________there are several spelling mistakes. (except that)

eg._________me ,there were ten other people at the meeting. (Besides, Apart from)

eg. The doctor told me nothing ______to stop smoking. (but)

eg. Last night I did nothing _____ watch TV. (but)

Integrating Skills

Step 1 Lead in

Which group do the zoologists place human Beings? Primates.

Primates include other mammals such as apes and monkeys, and they share certain characteristics.

Step 2 Fast reading

1 What are the key features found in primates? (Para 1)

2 Do you think it is possible to teach chimpanzees to use language and do other things that we consider typically human? Why or why not? (Para 6)

3.Can you name some key features found in primates?

Their hands and feet can grasp and often have opposable thumbs and toes.

4. Which two groups are the primates divided?

Higher primates and lower primates. Or new world primates and old world primates.

5. What are the differences between apes and monkeys?

Apes have no tails, nearly all monkeys do; apes tend to be larger and walk more upright; apes use sight more than smell. Apes also have more developed brains and give birth to fewer young.

6. What do primates use to express themselves and communicate?

They use facial expressions, body language and sounds to express themselves and they can even use colour and smell to communicate.

7. Why the experiments may not tell us much about how chimpanzees think and what they are able to do?

The reason is what the chimpanzees are trained to do is not natural to them, nor does it make much sense to the animals.

Step 3 Careful reading

Scan the passage and complete the chart below:

Types Characteristics and examples

Primate 1. hands and feet can grasp and often have opposable thumbs and toes;

2. have a better sense of touch and the primate brain is larger.

Other animals 1. not good at holding, moving, and using objects;

2. have a weak sense of touch and small brain.

Higher primates Large size of brain, such as human beings and apes.

Lower primates Small size of brain.

Monkeys Have tails, small and walk less upright.

Apes not tail, larger and walk more upright, use sight more than smell, developed brain.

Now world primates Bigger and spend more time on the ground, such as monkeys, apes and humans

Suggested answers to Ex 1 on Page 126

Primates

Primates have hands and feet that can grasp or thumbs and toes that are opposable. Primates also have a highly developed sense of touch and a brain that is larger-compared to body size-than that of other animals.

Other animals

Other animals have smaller brains compared to their body size.

Higher primates

Larger brains

Lower primates Smaller brains

Monkeys

Most monkeys have tails; monkeys are smaller and doesn’t walk upright as apes; their brains are less developed.

Apes

Apes have no tails; apes tend to be larger and walk more upright; apes use sight more than smell; an ape’s brain is more developed; apes have fewer young

New world primates

The group includes, among others, the spider monkey and the night monkey. New world primates are usually small and live in trees

Old world primates

The group includes monkeys, apes and humans. Old world primates are bigger and spend more time on the ground.

Suggested answers to Ex 2 on Page 126

Higher primates, such as chimpanzees, are genetically very similar to human beings. They walk like us (upright) and have hands and feet that can grasp. Chimpanzees and other higher primates also behave in “human” ways: they live in groups, they communicate with each other, and they use tools to find and eat food. However, these similarities do not mean that higher primates necessarily think like humans or are able to do what humans do, such as the solve problems and use human language. Some primates, such as chimpanzees, also still have opposable toes, but human beings don’t.

Step 4 Discussion

Do you think it is possible to teach chimpanzees to use language and do other things that we consider typically human? Why or why not?

Step 5 Language points

1.That means that primates are better than other animals at holding, moving and using objects.

better than other animals是比较级表最高级的用法.

(1) 比较级+than+any other+单数名词 He is taller than any other boy in his class.

(2) 比较级+than+all the other +复数名词 He is taller than all the other boys in his class

(3) 比较级+than +anyone else He is taller than anyone else

2. Notably

(1) adv.值得注意的;愿意地;引人注目地;显然

Many members are notably absent from the meeting.

(2) 尤其地;特别地 Many members were absent, notably the vice-chairman.

3. Compared to (with)与……相比较 Compared to (with) her mother, she is tall.

compare…with…把……和……做比较 compare…to… 把……比作……

beyond/past/without compare无比的;无双的

4. feast on 或feast…on…宴请(某人),款待;尽情地吃 He feasted his friends on turkey.

We feasted all evening on the best food and drink.

高一词组Unit 5

1. after graduating毕业以后

2. after high school

3. after these highly successful films

4. graduate in law at/from Oxford毕业于牛津大学法律系

5. He was graduated from the Teachers’ college in the class of 1982. 他是师范学院1982届毕业的。

6. a graduate in medicine医科毕业生 female graduates女大学生

7. a graduate student研究生

8. play an important role in在...中起重要作用;play a part in……在……中发挥作用

9. play the leading role in在……中演主角

10. act a role in a film在一部电影中扮演某角色

11. play roles in many plays在许多戏剧中扮演角

12. play the leading role起主要作用, 起带头作用

13. play the role of(sb.)(在剧中)扮演(某人)角色

14. in one’s fifties在某人五十几岁时

15. in one’s early(late) fifties 50刚出头/快六十了

16. in one’s teens在某人十几岁时

17. in the fifties在50年代

18. in the nineteen fiftieth or in the fifties of the twentieth 20世纪50年代

19. at the age of fifty在他50岁时

20. in the 1980s在二十世纪八十年代

21. in 1980 在1980年

22. I won a prize for running. 我跑步得了奖。

23. be awarded a prize for为...而获奖

24. win a prize [scholarship]获得奖品[奖学金]

25. win a wide support得到广泛支持

26. win a reputation获得名声

27. win a victory赢得胜利

28. win a battle [match]赢得战争[比赛]

29. win honour for为...争光

30. win one's way排除困难 [障碍] 前进

31. win the summit攀上高峰

32. win sb. over把……争取过来,说服,战胜

33. grow up长大; 成人[熟] ;兴起; 发展

34. later on其后, 以后

35. no later than不迟于

36. sooner or later迟早

37. leave school退学, 离校, 放学回家

38. in the beginning当初, 开始时

39. at the beginning从一开始; 开始; 起初; 首先

40. at the beginning of在...初

41. take off拿掉, 取消, 脱衣, 起飞, 减弱, 离开, 岔开, 复制

42. be about从事于,忙于,讲述的是

43. be about to do sth.=be on the point of doing sth.即将, 正要, 正打算

44. dream of (doing) sth. 梦想做某事

45. dream away虚度(时间等)

46. cut into插进来, 参加(谈话), 打断(别人的话); 减少, 缩减; 切开; 侵犯(利益)

47. cut sth. into pieces把……切碎

48. cut an apple into halves把苹果切成两半

49. cut sth. in two=cut sth. in half把…切成两半

50. do research in/on/into对……进行调查研究

51. make scientific researches on进行...科学研究

52. do research on blood diseases 进行血液病研究

53. research into the causes of an illness 研究发病原因

54. attack the enemy攻打敌人

55. attack the problem.解决这个问题。

56. be under attack遭到攻击

57. be attacked with (a disease)患[害]病

58. have an attack of发作(指病)

59. make an attack on/upon攻击, 向...进攻

60. open an attack开始进攻

61. a surprise attack突然袭击

62. a heart attack心脏病突发

63. go bad=be rotten腐烂

64. go wrong走错路, 误入岐途, (机器等)发生故障

65. do wrong做错事; 犯罪, 作恶; 判断错误

66. do sb. wrong=do wrong to sb.=be unfair to sb.对待某人不公平; 冤枉某人, 委屈某人

67. do something wrong做错事

68. get sb. wrong[口]误解某人=misunderstand sb.

69. put sb. in the wrong冤枉某人, 委屈某人, 诬陷某人

70. something is wrong with 某人[某事] 出毛病, 出差错

71. do wrong/right/good/harm to sb.做错(坏)事/做得对/做好事,有好处/有害处

72. follow up紧追不舍; 穷追 ;继续下去 ;随访(在诊断或治疗后与病人保持联系)

73. follow-up n.(对已经开始或已完成的事物所作的)后续工作

74. owe sb. sth.=owe sth. to sb.欠某人某物

75. owe sb. money=owe money to sb.欠谋人钱 I owe him ten dollars.我欠他10美元。

76. owe sb. sth.应给于某人某事

77. owe thanks to sb. for sth.因某事而感谢某人

78. I owe you many thanks.我非常感谢你。

79. You owe me an apology.你得向我道歉

80. owe sb. an explanation向某人解释

81. owe sth. to把...归功于; 为...而应感谢[用于好事]

82. We owe our parents a lot. 我们十分感激父母。

83. He owes his success to his hard work.他认为自己取得成功是辛勤劳动的结果。

84. I owe you for your help.我感谢你的帮助。

85. He owes his success to good luck more than ability.他成功多半靠运气,而不是靠能力。

86. owe sb. a favor让某人帮忙

87. owing to=due to=because of=on account of She owes me a grudge.她对我怀有怨恨。

88. attribute sth. to认为某事物是...的属性; 把某事物归功于; 认为某事物是(某人)创造的[用于好事或坏事;可用被动]

89. attribute his son’s failure to the lack of persistence把儿子的失败归因于缺乏恒心

90. attribute his good health to careful living认为身体健康是保养得法的结果

91. delays attributed to snow 因下雪而耽搁

92. bring back拿回来, 使回忆起来, 使恢复

93. bring sb. back to earth使某人回到现实

94. bring sb. back safely把某人平安带回

95. work on v.继续工作, 设法说服, 影响

96. work at 致力于,在....方面下功夫[倾向于:克服困难,解决问题]

97. work on (doing) sth.从事,进行

98. work for为...工作

99. work as做…工作

100. work as an actress当女演员

101. in all总共

102. save sb. from从...救出某人, 使免于[不致, 不受]...

103. save the life of sb.

104. cannot help (doing)不禁, 忍不住, 情不自禁

105. cannot help but do sth.不能不, 不得不

I cannot help but be sorry. 我不能不感到遗憾

106. cannot help oneself情不自禁; 不能自制

107. take one's place就座, 入座=take one’s seat(s); 各就各位;取代某人

108. take sb.'s place代替某人; 接替某人的位置

109. take the place of代替=take sb.’s place

110. take place发生, 举行

111. lock sb. up 将某人锁于某处不得进出;将某人监禁起来

112. copy (sth.) down (from the blackboard)将(...)(从黑板上)抄下来

113. I copied the letters into my book. 我把信抄到我的书上。

114. Jean always copies the way I dress. 琼总是模仿我穿衣服的样子。

115. look up向上看, 尊敬, 仰望, 查寻, 拜访, 好转

116. run after追捕, 追求, 跟踪

117. cause trouble for sb.

118. run away 1.(常与from连用)逃走,逃脱 2.逃避,躲开

119. leave school退学, 离校, 放学回家

120. go to town1.到城里去 2.[口]乱花钱, 挥霍浪费; 3.[口](言论等)无所顾虑, 毫无节制

121. at a speed of 60 kilometers per hour 以每小时60公里的速度

122. with (great) speed=at speed快速地at high speed

123. at full/top speed全速地

124. speed up(使)加快速度

125. be determined to do make up one’s mind to do sth. / decide to do sth. / determine to do sth. 决定做某事make decisions about sth

126. determine on/upon (doing) sth.决定

127. determine sb. against sth.使 某人决定不做某事

128. determine sb. to do sth.使某人决定做某事

129. determine that –clause

130. be determined on(doing) sth.

131. be determined that-clause

132. make a decision/determination to do sth.

133. keep the peace维护治安

134. hold one’s peace/tongue保持沉默,不作声

135. make one’s peace with与(某人)和解/言归于好

136. (be) at peace处于和睦状况

137. in peace安静地

138. can't afford to buy sth.买不起...

139. can't afford to waste sth浪费不起

140. It affords pleasure to me.这使我很高兴。

141. do one's best to do sth.尽全力

142. stay away不在家,外出

143. stay away from缺席; stay away from school没上学

144. on the air1.正在广播; 开始播送 2.(电子计算机)在运转中

145. in the air1.在空中 2.(消息等)在传播, 在到处流行 3.(计划等)悬而未决 4.(事情)可能发生的

146. go back回去

147. go back to a place回去

148. go back from违背(诺言), 背弃; 食言

149. like sth. not just because -----,but because----喜欢某事不止是因为……,而是因为……

150. feel bad about sth.对某事感到难过

151. feel about(用手、足、杖等)寻找、摸索

152. How do you feel about sth.?

153. think highly of看重;器重; 尊重

154. think well of重视

155. think little of看轻;看不起

156. think poorly of不放在眼里;轻视

157. think nothing of轻视;认为无所谓;认为没什么了不起

158. not think much of看轻

159. think better of sb.对某人印象好;看重某人

160. think better of sth.改变…念头;打消主意

161. make comments on/upon/about sth.评论某事

162. comment on/upon/about 评论, 谈论, 对...提意见

163. comment that-clause评论……

164. ask for comment征求意见

165. offer comments提意见

166. No comment .无可奉告。

167. without comment不必多说

168. have a high opinion of sth.(对某人[事])有很高的评价, 尊重(某人[事])

169. have a low opinion of sb.(对某人[事])评价甚低; 轻视; 瞧不起

170. in one's opinion按某人的意见, 据某人看来

171. in the opinion of照...的意见

172. give one’s opinion about

173. encourage sb. to do sth.鼓励某人(做某事)

174. be encouraged by受...鼓励[鼓舞]

练习

175. have a career as a singer

176. earn [gain, get, make] one's living谋生

177. to make a living as a driver 以开汽车谋生

178. have no time for没时间做(某事)

179. have no time to watch television 没有闲功夫看电视

180. make a note of/make notes of[指及时记下事情以备忘

181. take a note of/ take notes of[指上课时作笔记]

182. take notice of注意到,take no notice of不予理睬/不予注意 take note of注意/留心

183. break down毁掉, 制服, 压倒, 停顿, 倒塌, 中止, 垮掉, 分解

184. be well received 某人某事受欢迎

185. give a second look

186. have a good income

187. make one’s career

188. be successful in

一、 本讲要点

1. 重点短语

1. a survey of

2. have no connection with

3. an account of

4. run away from home

5. ahead of them

6. point … at

7. pour down

8. by the light of

9. half in and half out of the water

10. It looked like…/ It looks as if …/ it sounds as if…

11. to our astonishment

12. I’ve had enough of you

13. persuade sb to do sth/ persuade sb. into doing…

14. have a satisfied expression on his face

15. play a trick on sb

16. make up a story

17. start off

18. we’ve no time to lose

19. feel in the mood for

20. be set in

21. make one’s way down…

22. continue with…/to do…/doing…

23. hang on

24. get a move on(hurry up)

25. grab a bite to eat ( have a quick meal)

26. to start with

27. warn sb that…/ warn sb not to do…/ warn sb of/against …

28. be determined to make one’s fortune

29. only to find…

30. force sb to do

31. establish the reputation as…

32. bring… back to life

33. be /get/go close to sb.

2. 重点句型

1. it looks as if

2. feel in the mood for sth

3. 交际用语

1. hang on a minute

2. get a move on

3. grab a bite to eat

4. 语法

Revision of verb forms

二、 同步课堂

1. have connection with sb/sth:与某人/某物有关

in connection with: 关于

connect with/to sth 连接,联结

Connect sb with sb /sth 使某人与某人/物有关系

eg: 1) She is connected with a noble family. 她是某名门望族的亲戚。

2) We have connections with various international cooperations in Europe.

我们同欧洲的多家跨国公司有业务往来。

3) the problems in connection with agriculture

关于农业的一些问题

2. account: n /vt account for sth解释某事物的原因

eg:1) His illness accounts for his absence. 他因病缺席。

2) Please account for your lateness.

3) She could not account for her mistake. 解释

4) an exciting account of the match 报导

5) The accounts are perfectly in order.帐目

6) Please give me an account of your trip. 描述

3.The tall man is pointing a gun at the man on the floor.

point sth at sb 用某物瞄准或对着某人

eg: point one’s finger at sb /sth 用手指着某人/某物

point a telescope at the moon 用望远镜对准月亮

point sth out to sb 使某人注意某事物,向某人指出…

eg: point out a mistake 指出错误

point out to sb the stupidity of his/ her behaviour. 向某人指出其行为愚蠢

4. pour: vi 1) (液体)不断流动 2) (指雨)倾盆而下

3)人或事不断地涌来或涌现

vt 倒,灌,注,为某人斟倒(茶或咖啡)

eg: Blood was pouring from the wound. 血从伤口中涌出

Sweat was pouring down his face. 他满头大汗。

It’s pouring (down). 大雨如注

a pouring wet day 大雨天

Letters of complaint poured in (to head office)

投诉信件源源不断地寄到(总部)。

Shall I pour you some tea?我给你斟点茶好吗?

Pour the milk into the jug. 把牛奶灌进壶里。

5. board n.

膳宿费;膳食费用 board and lodging

Each student has to pay $100 a month for board and lodging.

每个学生每月需付一百美元的膳宿费。

Board vt, vi

用木板盖

Let's board the side door up.

让我们用板把边门钉上。

上船;坐船;搭乘(公共交通工具)

He boarded the bus.

他上了公共汽车。

包饭;供膳,供膳宿

She arranged to board some students from the university.

她供一些大学生膳宿。

6. panick: or panic v 使(人或动物)受惊 n 恐慌,惊惶

eg: 1) The gunfire panicked the horses. 枪声惊吓了马。

* panick sb into doing sth :使某人因惊慌仓促做蠢事

2) The crowd panicked at the sound of the guns.

3) The banks were panicked into selling dollars.

银行惊恐地抛售美元。

** be in a (state of ) panic (about sth) 对某事惊慌失措

eg: 1) I got into a panic when I found the door was locked.

我发觉门锁上了,十分惊慌。

2) The thought of flying fills me with panic. 我一想到飞行就吓得战战兢兢。

7. It … as if …

It seems as if the snow that has lasted two days will stop soon.

It smells as if something in the house is burned.

8. curious: adj 1) 富于好奇心的,有求知欲的,感兴趣的;

2)爱管闲事的,对别人的事情过份感兴趣的

3)奇特的,不寻常的

*be curious about sth / to do sth 对某事感兴趣

eg: 1) be curious about the origin of mankind 对人类的起源有兴趣

2) I’m curious to know what she said. 我真想知道她说了什么。

3) He is a curious boy who is always asking questions.

他是个有求知欲的孩子,老是问这问那。

4) She’s always so curious about my work. 她总爱打听我的工作。

5) Don’t be so curious! 别这么好奇!

6) She looks rather curious with green hair. 她头发是绿的,样子有点古怪。

7) It’s curious that he didn’t tell you .他没有告诉你,实在反常。

curiously: adv

curiosity: n 好奇心; 希奇或罕见的事物或人,珍品

9. terrified: adj 感到恐惧的,很害怕的

be terrified of sb / sth at sth

eg: terrified of spiders, heights, the dark 惧怕蜘蛛,登高,黑暗

I’m terrified at the prospect of being alone in the house.

我要是自己呆在一所房子里就很害怕。

terrify: vt 使某人感到恐怖,使害怕

terrified his children with ghost stories. 讲鬼故事吓坏了他的孩子

terrifying: adj 让人害怕的

a terrifying experiencen 可怕的经历

10. make up a story: 编故事

make up for sth 补偿,赔偿,弥补或抵消某事物

make sth out 理解某事物

be made of

be made from

11. feel / be in the mood for sth / to do sth 有意/有心情做某事

be in no mood for (doing )sth / to do sth 没有做某事物的心思或兴致

eg; He is in no mood for (telling) jokes / to tell jokes. 他没心情讲笑话。

12. . warn . vt

warn sb. about sth ; warn sb. of sth; warn sb not to do sth ;warn sb against sth/doing sth ; warn sb that…; warn sb off sth/doing sth

A (常与about ,of, against连用)警告;提醒;告诫

1) She warned me about the dangerous road, so I crossed it carefully.

她提醒我这条马路很危险,因此我过马路小心翼翼。

I warned you not to walk home alone.

Her financial adviser warned her against such a risky investment.

B. (常与that连用)事先通知

2) The whistle warned visitors that the ship was ready to sail.

汽笛通知旅客船即将启航。

3) They called and warned me that they might be delayed.

他们打来电话,预先告诉我他们可能耽搁一会儿

C . warn off 告诫(某人)离开,告诫(某人)不得靠近

4) I tried to warn her off going out with him.

13. .establish .vt 成立,建立

2) His second film, 'Ideal Husband', established his fame as a film director.

他的第二部影片《理想的丈夫》确立了他当电影导演的声誉。

3) The company was established in 1860.

这家公司创办于一八六零年。

4) The club has established a new rule allowing women to join.

俱乐部制定了一条新规章,允许妇女入会。

* (与in连用)安置,安排

He established his son in business.

他安排儿子立足商界。

* 确定;证实

to establish the truth of a story

证实故事的真实性

* 制订(规则) ; 使认定;使承认

His honesty is well established.

他的忠实已被认可。

***Establishment n

建立,成立, 商业机构

These two hotels are both excellent establishments.

这两家旅馆都是出色的商业机构。

14. reputation

have a good [bad] reputation

名誉好[坏]

have a reputation for sth. (=have the reputation of)

因...而著名, 以...闻名

live up to one's reputation

不负盛名; 名副其实

lose [ruin] one's reputation

名誉扫地

of great[good, high] reputation

很有声望的, 享有盛名的

of no reputation

声名狼藉的

of reputation

有名望的

典型题例

1. If you are___ about Australian cities, just read the book written by Dr Johnson.

A. interested B. anxious C. upset D. curious

选 D

2. Everybody in the village likes Jack because he is good at telling and _____ jokes.

A. turning up B. putting up C. making up D. showing up

选 C 本题考察动词词组词义辨析。

3. He hurried to the station only ____ that the train had left.

A. to find B. finding C. found D. to have found

选 A

同步听力

第一节 听下面 5段对话。 每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的A,B,C 三个选项中选出最佳的选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有十秒的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下以小题。每段对话仅读一遍。

1. What does the woman think of the chicken?

A. It’s bad B. It’s nice C. It’s not delicious

2. What does the man asked the woman to do?

A. to give him some presents B. To ask her for some help. C. To send his regards to her family

3. Where do you think the man is ?

A. at the Lost and Found B. at a football club C. in a collage

4. How many European countries had the woman been to ?

A. five B. four C. three

5. What colour is the man fond of ?

A. white B. grey C. green

第二节 听下面对话或独白,每段对话和的独白后都有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳答案,并标在试卷的相应位置。听每段对话或独白前,你都有时间阅读各个小题,每个小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的时间作答。每段对话或独白读两遍。

听第六段材料,回答6-8题。

6. According to the regular time schedule, when should the bus come to this bus-stop?

A. twenty minutes earlier from now

B. twenty minutes late

C. at twenty past nine

7. What’s the girl’s name?

A. Mary B. Jane C. Margie

8. What does the boy want to be when he leaves the university?

A. An engineer B. A professor C. A lawyer

听第七段材料,回答9-11题。

9. What were the man and the woman going to do tonight?

A. They were going to see an exhibition

B. They were going to attend a lecture

C. They were going to a concert together

10. What does the man have to do tonight ?

A. to have dinner with a friend

B. to teach the students

C. to accompany some guests

11. What does the woman think of the result?

A. understandable B. Awful C. unacceptable

听第八段材料,回答12-14题。

12. What is the man do you learn from the conversation?

A. a policeman B. a fireman C. a doctor

13. Why is the man in the hospital?

A. He has some difficulty in breathing

B. He comes to see his wife

C. He wants to have a talk with the little girl

14. What’s the woman’s hope?

A. she hopes that her husband will take up a new job

B. she hopes to se the little girl her husband has saved

C. she hopes to have put out the fire herself

听第九段材料回答15-17题。

15. What’s the weather like in Greece?

A. pleasant B. terrible C. neither good nor bad

16. What’s the weather like in spring?

A. the sun shines every day

B. It’s often windy in March and always warm in April and May.

C. It’s always warm and never rains

17. What’s the relationship between the man and the woman?

A. husband and wife B. friends C. a Greek and a stranger

听第十段材料,回答底18-20题。

18. What kind of tax is the biggest tax for most Americans?

a. social security tax B. personal income tax C. sales tax

19. Why do almost one half all Americans have to pay experts?

A. because the experts will help the citizens to pay less.

B. Because paying experts for tax advice has become very popular.

C. Because they find their knowledge about taxes is too limited to write tax reports all by themselves

20. The best title for the passage is _____.

A. the income tax B. taxes in the US C. how to pay taxes

Answers:1-5 B C A C C 6-10 A A C A B 11-15 A B A A A 16-20 B C B C B

反馈练习

I. Choose the best answer.

1.----I’d like to go hunting with you, but I have a meeting _____. ------If you don’t go, ______.

A. to attend; so do I B. attending; so will I C. attend; neither will I

D. to attend; nor will I

2. _____, so we had to stay at home.

A. Because the cold day B. It was a cold day C. Being a cold day

D. The day being cold

3. The soldiers went on____ the fields, after they helped the villagers get in the wheat.

A. to dig B. digging C. dig D. to digging

4. I remember____ to the zoo by my father when I was a little boy.

A. to take B. being taken C. to be taken D. taking

5. Please tell me the way you thought of ___ the garden.

A. take care of B. to take care of C. taking care of D. how to take care of

6.------ We are going to dig a deep well in our village.-----What_____?

A. by B. of C. with D. at

7. In my opinion, Americans eat____ meat.

A. many B. too many C. too much D. much too

8. ---Tom works hard at English. ------_____, and ____.

A.So does he; so you do B.So you do; so is he C. So he will; so do you D.So he does; so do you

9.The visiting professor____ giving lectures to students____ invited to meetings at times.

A. preferred; to being B. preferred to; rather than C.preferred; than being D. prefered; to being

10. ---I’m afraid I must be off now. -----______.

A. No problem B. Never mind C. Step slowly D. See you

11. -----____in the workshop. Please stop it.------Sorry,I____.

A. Smoking is not allowed; don’t know B. Not smoking; am not sure

C. Don’t smoke;have no idea D. Smoking is not allowed ; didn’t know

12. After taking a short rest, the peasants ____ in the fields.

A. went on to work B. went on working C. kept on to work D. kept to work

13. We’ll go to Lushan for our holiday,_____ it won’t cost much money.,

A. unless B. for C. but D. otherwise

14. -------What made you so surprised? -----_____my house____ saying good-bye.

A. Jim’s leaving; without B.Jim leaving; without

C.Jim’s left; instead of D.Jim’s leaving; instead of

15.The baby is sleeping in the next room. Would you please____ the radio a little, Tom?

A. turn on B. turn off C. turn up D. turn down

16.Visitors are requested____ the exhibits because they are easily broken.

A. to feel B. to touch C. not to touch D. not to feel

17 ----Will you ____ this message to Mr White, please? ----Sorry, I can’t . He doesn’t work here any longer. A. give B.get C. have D. go

18. -----What have you _____ hydrogen(氧气), Mary? -----Balloons.

A. have filled with B. had filled of C. had filled with D. to have filled

19.The pineapple tastes____ and sells____.

A.good; good B. good; well C. well; good D. well; well

20. -----The young man spent as much time as he ______ experiments.

------No wonder he succeeded _____.

A. did; by the end B. could do; in the end C. could doing; at the end

D. could to do; in the end

II Cloze test

Dickens was one of __21___ writers in Britain. He was a small man ___22___ thick glasses, but he had a strange way __23___ make his writing lively and interesting and moving. Almost all his __24___ are well ___25___ even now.

Dickens ___26___ animals very much. __27__ he had a cat. The cat liked him __28__ as Dickens liked the cat. __29__ Dickens went out, the cat would __30__ him out to the garden and jumped on the fence to see him _31__. Whenever Dickens came home, he always found the cat __32___ for him near the door. __33__ the sight of Dickens, the cat would jump on his shoulder, ___34___ very pleased. Dickens __35__ work very late __36_ the night. When he was working __37___ his novel, the cat always sat besides him on the desk. When the cat saw Dickens __38__ too late, it would __39___ Dickens to bed __40__ putting out the candle with his paw.

21 A most B the most C the best D great

22 A by B on C more D with

23 A to B of C by D on

24 A work B works C book D passages

25 A reading B know C remembering D remembered

26 A enjoyed B likes C fond of D hated

27 A Before B Once C Ago D At times

28 A same B while C much D as much

29 A However B Whatever C Wherever D Whenever

30 A send B go C follow D see

31 A in B out C of D off

32 A to wait B is waiting C waiting D wait

33 A At B On C In D Off

34 A looking B look C looked D seemed

35 A was used to B used to C using to D use to

36 A at B on C during D into

37 A out B on C during D in

38 A working B to work C was working D work

39 A carry B send C take D put

40 A for B by C with D on

III Reading Comprehension.

(A)

Our summer vacation begins on July 15th and lasts nearly two months. Considering my brain needs a rest after a period of hard work, I, together with my family, went to my country home, a very small farmhouse in which my grandparents used to live, to spend the summer. Obviously, life, in the country is very different from that in the city.

Early in the morning I took a walk along the field side. The air was fresh and pure. With a dog following, sometimes I ran a race in the meadows covered with tall grass. Sometimes I climbed up the hill to see the sun slowly yet steadily rise from the dreams, singing restlessly among the bushes. In order to enjoy the quietness of the country, I gave myself entirely to nature, with a light heart and a happy mind. Sometimes in the afternoon I, together with my cousins, took a rod and went to the river to fish. It made the family happy when they saw me returning with a basketful of large fresh fish. When night came, I would sit at the door and tell the most wonderful and interesting stories to my cousins, who listened to the tale of wonder with open eyes and mouth.

41.Why did the family live in their country home during the summer?

A. Because they didn’t like city life B. Because they could breathe fresh air

B. Because the boy needed to relax after a period of hard work

C. Because they had something to do there.

42.How did the author enjoy himself while he stayed in the country?

A. He sat in the open air all day long B. He listened to the songs sung by the birds

C.He got himself to the nature entirely D. He dreamed a lot for his future life

43.He once made the family members happy by -------.

A. singing popular songs B. telling stories

C.helping others with their housework D. returning with plenty of fish.

44.What’s the main idea of the passage?

A. How the boy spent his summer vacation.

B. Summer holidays are part of the year for children

C. Some children are lucky to live in the country.

D. Why this family came to the country.

45.What does the word “meadow” in the second paragraph probably mean?

A. playground B. sportsfield C. grassland D. grasscutter

(B)

Mr. and Mrs. Brown were going abroad for their holiday. They had a dog called Blackie which they were very fond of, but they could not take him abroad with them, so they looked for a good place to leave him in while they were away, and at last found a place which looked after dogs very well while their owners were away. They took Blackie there just before they left for their holiday, and sadly said good-bye to him.

At the end of their holiday, they got back to England very late at night, and as they thought that the place where Blackie was staying might be closed at that hour, they decided to wait until the next morning before going to get him back.

So the next morning Mr. Brown got into his car and drove off happily to collect Blackie.

When he reached home with the dog , he said to his wife, “Do you know, dear, I don’t think Blackie can have enjoyed his stay at that place very much. He barked(叫) all the way home in the car as if he wanted to tell me something.

Mrs. Brown looked at the dog carefully and then answered, “you are quite right, dear, he was certainly trying to tell you something. But he wasn’t trying to tell you that he hadn’t enjoyed his stay at that place. He was only complaining that you were bringing the wrong dog home. This is not Blackie!”

46.The Browns decided to leave their dog somewhere while they were away because ------

A. they were not fond of him any more B.they did not want to take him with them

C.the dog refused to go with them D. they were not allowed to take him abroad

47.They ------before they left for their holidays.

A. asked a friend to take care of the dog

B. took it to an old man who looked after dogs very well

C. left it to their housekeeper

D. found Blackie a good place where dogs were taken good care of

48.The day they got back to England, they------

A. went to the place right away to get Blackie B.did not go to the place at all

B. went to collect their dog, but that place was closed

C. waited there for the place to open

49.As the dog------, he barked all the way.

A. did not recognize Mr. Brown B. had something to tell his old master

C. had not enjoyed his stay at that place D. knew he was with their masters again

50.What do you think, “You are quite right, dear” means?

A. She fully agreed with her husband B. She was saying what he did was right

C. The dog did want to tell him something: He was bringing the wrong dog

D. There was something wrong with their old dog.

(C).

Snow fell on the mountain. It snowed and snowed. The snow did not melt. It became thick and heavy. The snow pressed together. It became ice.

The ice was very wide and thick. It began to move down the mountain. It was like a river of ice. It was glacier.

Sometimes the glacier moved only a few inches each day. As it moved it took stones and sand with it. It changed the land. In some places, it left hills, in some places, when the glacier melted, it made rivers and lakes.

A million years ago, there were many big glaciers. Glaciers covered most part of the side of a world. The glaciers changed the land.

Glaciers are still at work today. A glacier in the north of Canada is moving down the side of a mountain. This glacier will change the land, too.

51.The snow that fell on the mountain-------

A. became ice B. was wonderful C. turn to rain D. changed into water

52.From this story we know-------.

A. glaciers are found only in warm places B.glaciers do not change the land as they move over it

B. there are not as many glaciers as there were long, long ago

C. there is only one glacier in the north of Canada

53.The glacier moves because ----------.

A. it melts into water by the warm air around it B.it is very large and heavy

D. there are a lot of stones and sand under it D.it is like a river of ice

54.The underlined word “melt” means-----

A. become a river B. Become hard C. change into ice D. turn into water

55.The main idea of the passage is that--------.

A. snow is heavy B. the glacier changes the land

C. the land never changes the land D. the glacier is still moving

IV. Sentence Conversion

1. We don’t know much about chemistry. We ________ ________ about chemistry.

2. Their holidays were different from yours.

Their holidays weren’t ________ ________ ________ yours.

3. At last we won the match. . ______ we won the match.

4. Mr. Li didn’t give us a lesson. Mrs. Wang came to teach us instead.

Mrs Wang came to teach us _______ _______ Mr. Li.

5. The bottle was full of petrol. They ______ the bottle _______ petrol.

V. Proof Reading

In our everyday’s life we see many moving 1. _____________

things. We see cars, bicycles, buses or trucks 2. _____________

moving along the roads. We see planes flying above 3. _____________

the sky and ships sail on the sea. 4. _____________

Do you know what causes things move? 5. _____________

The answer is force. A force can be a push 6. _____________

or a pull. If you use a force on cart(车), it 7. _____________

will move and keeps moving for some time 8. _____________

before it stopped. It is the same when we 9. _____________

ride bicycle. The bicycle will stop moving after 10. _____________

some time if we don't keep on pedaling(蹬)

Answers:

1-5 D B A B B 6-10. C C D A D 11-15. D B B A D 16-20.C A C B D

21-25.C D A B D

26-30.A B D D C 31-35. D C A A B 36-40. D B A B B 41-45. C C D A C 46-50.D D B A C

51-55.A C B D B

IV. know little ; the same as ; Finally(Lastly ) ; instead of ; filled with

V. 1. Everyday 2 and 3 in 4 sailing 5 to 6.对 7 a 8 keep 9 stops 10 a\bicycles

Unit 6 I'm more outgoing than my sister.

  【重要词组概览】

  ◆ be good at       擅长,善于,在......做得好

  ◆ twin sister      双胞胎姐妹

  ◆ in some ways      在某些方面

  ◆ look the same      看上去一样

  ◆ look different     看上去不同

  ◆ enjoy doing sth     喜欢做某事

  ◆ more than        多于,超过

  ◆ between...and...    在......和......之间

  ◆ as...as...       和......一样

  ◆ lots of=a lot of  许多, 大量的

  ◆ a little         一点儿(修饰比较级,表示 "更......一点儿" )

  ◆ the same as       和......相同

  ◆ make sb. do sth.     使某人做某事

  ◆ like to do sth.     喜欢做某事

  ◆ be important for sb.  对某人重要

  ◆ be different from   和...... 不同

  ◆ stay at home      呆在家里

  【语法知识聚焦】

要点解疑:

1. Tara’s shorter than Tina. 塔拉比蒂娜矮。

这是一个表示比较的句子。Than为连词,自两者进行比较时使用,意为“……比……”其前的形容词或副词用比较级,其后接比较的另一方。

如:He is taller than his brother. 他比他弟弟高。

2. (Section A 3a)Thanks for your last letter. 谢谢你上次的来信。

介词for此处表示原因,其后接名词,代词或动名词作宾语。

如:Thank you for your help.谢谢你的帮助。

Thank you for telling me that.谢谢你告诉我这事。

last此处用作形容词,意为“上一个的,刚刚过去的”。

3. However 用作副词, 意为“然而,可是”

如: I’d like to go swimming with you. However , I have lots of work to do.

我想和你一起去游泳,可是我有许多工作要做。

4. enjoy going to the party喜欢去参加聚会;enjoy 后接动名词,表示“喜欢做某事”

如:My sister enjoys singing and dancing. 我姐姐喜欢唱歌跳舞。

What does Bob enjoy doing? 鲍勃喜欢做什么?

5. (3b) the same as 意为“和……相同”表示同等比较。

如:His bike is the same as mine.他的自行车和我的相同。

6. (section B 1a) make me laugh 使我发笑

make 此处用作使役动词,意为“使,让”。其后宾补为不定式时,要省略to,其结构为 make +宾语+do。

如:Our teacher makes us speak English in class.老师让我们在课堂上讲英语。

7. (1b) as此处用作连词,意为“像……一样”,常用在as…as, the same as…等表示比较的结构中,引导比较状语从句。

如:He likes the same colour as Jim. 他和吉姆喜欢同样的颜色。

辨析:like / as

二者均可作“像……一样”讲,但用法不同。

like 用于说明相似的关系,即两者在形态上或性质上有相似之处,但不等同。如:Look! I have wings just like you. 看!我和你们一样有翅膀。

as 指身份或资格意为“作为,看作”用于说明同一关系,即两者实为一体。

比较:He works like a worker.他像工人一样干活。(实际上不是)

He works as a worker.他作为一名工人而工作。(职业是工人)

8. (3a) I like to have friends who are like me. 我喜欢交和我个性一样的朋友。

这是一个含有定语从句的复合句。定语从句who are like me修饰其前名词friends, who 是定语从句的主语。

如:We love the teacher who teaches us music.

我们喜欢教我们音乐的那为老师。

语法聚焦

1) 形容词的作用

   形容词在句子中一般充当表语、定语和宾语补足语,如:

   Our school looks very beautiful. (表语)

   There are fifty students in our class, so we need a big classroom. (定语)

   Doing morning exercises can make us healthy. (宾语补足语)

2) 形容词的级别

   ①形容词有三种级别,即原级、比较级和最高级。当讨论的对象是一个时应使用原级,当讨论的对象是两个时应使用比较级,当讨论的对象在三个或更多时应使用最高级。

   ②在形容词原级后面加上er就成为比较级,在原级后加上est就成为最高级。具体规则如下:

i 一般的单音节形容词直接加er或est,词尾是不发音字母e的只加r或st,: long-longer-longest,tall-taller-tallest, nice-nicer-nicest

ii 以“辅音字母+ y”结尾的双音节形容词应将y改为i再加上er或est,如:

   early-earlier-earliest,

   dirty-dirtier-dirtiest,

   busy-busier-busiest,

healthy-healthier-healthiest

iii 重读闭音节,以辅音字母结尾的,双写这个辅音字母加“er”:thin-thinner-thinnest, big-bigger-biggest

iv 多音节词和少数双音节词前加more, 最高级应在前面加上most, 如:

   important-more important-most important,

   difficult-more difficult-most difficult

v 有些特殊的形容词有自己的变化规律, 如:

   good/well-better-best, bad/badly-worse-worst,

   many/much-more-most,  little-less-least,

   far-farther/further-farthest/furthest

③形容词的比较级句型应使用连词than或or,如:

   The weather in Shanghai is hotter than that in Beijing.

   上海的天气比北京的天气热.

   Which subject is more important, English or math?

   英语和数学, 哪个学科更重要?

  ④形容词的最高级前应加上定冠词the,句型中应给出比较范围,如:

   The Changjiang River is the longest river in China.

   长江是中国最长的河流.

   The third truck carries the most books of all.

   第三辆卡车在所有的卡车中载书最多.

  ⑤两个人或物比较时,如果只说明两者相同或不同,则可使用as...as...句型,否定句为not as (so)...as...句型,这里形容词仍使用原级,如:

   Mr. Green is as old as Mr. Brown.    

   格林先生和布朗先生年龄一样大.

   Mr. Green is not as (so) old as Mr. Brown.  

   格林先生和布朗先生的年龄不一样大.

【综合能力检测】

一.单词归类

  ear, subway, headache, hardly, go camping, nose, neck, sore throat, train, stomachache, often, babysitting, go sightseeing, shoulder, arm, fever, backache, sports camp, never, boat, plane, go bike riding, sometimes, always, bus

  Parts of body(人体部分):

  _______  ________  _________  _________  _________

  Conveyance(交通工具 ):

  ________  ________  _________  ________  _________

  Illness and discomforts(疾病和疼痛):

  _________  _________ _________  _________  _________

  Frequency adverbs( 频率副词):

  _________  _________  _________  ________  _________

  Vacation activities( 假日活动 ):

  _________  _________  _________  _________  _________

  二.选择填空

  (  ) 1. The girl isn’t short. She is __________ than before.

  A. short     B. tall       C. taller    D. shorter

  (  ) 2. Li Ming and Lin Tao _________ black eyes.

  A. has      B. have both    C. both have  D. both has

  (  ) 3. John is ___________ than Peter.

  A. funnier    B. fun        C. funny     D. more funny

  (  ) 4. My sister is __________ more outgoing than me.

  A. more     B. most       C. a little   D. little

  (  ) 5. Her grandfather ___________ fishing on weekends.

  A. likes going  B. like going   C. likes go   D. like to go

  (  ) 6. I __________ a movie this Sunday.

  A. watch     B. watches     C. watching   D. am watching

  (  ) 7. A: Can you go to the concert with us?

      B: ________.

  A. I’d love to B. I’d like    C. I’d love  D. I’d like to

  (  ) 8. I _______ a primary school student two years ago.

  A. am       B. was       C. be      D. were

  (  ) 9. He likes to do the same things _______ me.

  A. in       B. on        C. like     D. as

  (  )10. Maria is a student. ________ is good at swimming.

  A. He       B. She       C. We      D. I

  三.连句

  1. we, like, both, the, doing, same, things

    __________________________________________________.

  2. Tom, has, than , Sam, shorter, hair

    _____________________________________________.

  3. on, We're, Wednesday, tennis, playing, with, school , the ,team

    ____________________________________________________________.

  4. Tim, usually, school, subway, to, takes, the

    ________________________________________________.

  5. do, how,  often, exercise, you?

    ___________________________________________?

四. 根据句意,选择方框内所给的词语填空。

tired   staying  walk   heavier  funny 

bicycle  love    lesson  leaving  concert

  1. How long are you ________ in Miami?

  2. Are you ________? No, I’ m hungry.

  3. I live next to the school. I always ________ to school.

  4. Peter eats all the time. He is really ________ than everyone in our class.

  5. Lisa is so _______. She always makes everyone laugh.

  6. Mary rides her _______ to school everyday.

  7. Can you study with me? Yes, I’d _______ to.

  8. Today I have a piano _______. So I can’t go shopping with you.

  9. When are you ________ home?

  10.Can you go to the pop ________ with me?

五. 用比较级填空 

 1. Who is ___________( heavy), Wang Lin or Lin Tao?

 2. Mr Green is ______________( serious) than Mr Brown.

 3. The sun is ______________( big) than the earth.

 4. Unit 4 is ____________________( difficult) than Unit 5.

 5. My mother is __________ (young) than your mother is.

 6. Which country is _________( large) , China or Japan?

7. Mary has _________( long) hair than Betty.

8. It’s ________( hot) in summer in Beijing than that in Dalian.

 9. Miss Yang is ___________ ( calm) than Miss Li.

 10. You are __________________( athletic) than Jim.

  

六. 完成句子 

  1. 他多长时间拜访祖父母一次?他每月拜访祖父母3到4次。

    How ________does he visit his grand parents? 

    He _______his grandparents ____________or ______ _______a month.

  2. 我姐姐和我一样。我们都很外向。

    My sister is the __________ ________ me. We are both___________.

  3. 我们应该每天打扫教室。

    We should __________ our _______________ every day.

  4. 小明擅长游泳.

    Xiao Ming is ______ _____ ______.

  5. 你看上去和你的妹妹长得一样.你们是双胞胎吗?

    You and your sister ______ ______ ______ . Are you twins?

七. 句型转换

1.Mike is taller than any other boys in his class.(改为同义句)

Mike is __________ __________ boy in his class.

2.Li Ping doesn't run as far as Wang Lin.(改为同义句)

Wang Lin __________ __________ __________ Li Ping.

3.This bag is very big.(改为感叹句)

__________ big the __________ __________!

4.I'd like you to meet my teacher.(对划线部分提问)

__________ would you like __________ __________ __________?

5.Her father and mother are both doctors.(改为同义句)

Her __________ are both doctors.

6.They are going to meet at the gate of the park.(对划线部分提问)

__________ __________ __________ going to meet?

7.My box is heavy. Jim's box is heavier.(改为同义句)

Jim's box is heavier __________ __________.

8.The twins are twelve. Kate is eleven.(改为同义句)

Kate __________ the __________ of __________.

9.The teachers are watching TV in the meeting room.(对划线部分提问)

__________ __________ __________ __________ __________ in the meeting room?

10.What does he often do that for? (改为同义句)

__________ __________ he often do that?

八、阅读理解:

A

I really liked the Seaview Hotel.It's quite big.It has two hundred rooms.It's only a hundred meters from the sea.Bed and breakfast for one night is eighty pounds per person.The staff are friendly and the rooms are very clean.It's a nice hotel.The only problem is that it's not near any shops.You have to get a taxi or a bus if you want to buy presents to take home.

The Falcon Hotel has eighty rooms.One night with breakfast is seventy-two pounds.It's only seventy meters to the shops but you have to get a bus to the beach because it's six kilometers from the hotel.The staff aren't very friendly and the rooms aren't very clean.

Use the words in brackets to write sentences to compare the two hotels:

Eg. (cheap)The Falcon Hotel is cheaper than the Seaview Hotel.

1..(near to the shops)The Falcon Hotel is________________________.

2.(close to the sea)________________________.

3.(big)___________________________________.

4.(rooms /clean)___________________________________.

5.(staff /friendly)___________________________________.

B

Mary and Her Friends

Mary has some friends. They are Betty, Peter, Alice and Mike. Mary is the oldest of the five.① Betty is thirteen years old. She is younger than Mary and older than Peter. Alice is nine and Mike is seven.

Betty and Peter are good runners( 长跑运动员 ). But Peter runs faster. Mary and Betty like to play basketball. Mary plays better than Betty. Alice sings best of them.

Mary and Betty study in a middle school. Peter, Alice and Mike study in a primary ( 小学 ) school. They all work hard at school. But Betty works hardest. Her handwriting ( 书法 ) is good, too.

① Mary是五个中最大的。形容词的最高级 + of + the + 数词, 表示某个范围中最……的。

6、Mary has _______ friends.

A. four B. five C. six D. three

7、Mike is ______ than Alice.

A. youngest B. oldest C. younger D. older

8、Peter runs _______ than Betty.

A. faster B. slow C. faster D. the fastest

9、Betty’s handwriting is _______.

A. worst B. good C. better D. best

10、They all ______ .

A. study in the same school B. like to play basketball

C. good runners D. work hard

九. 写作

  昨天在你回家的路上,遇到一个两年未见面的小学同学XX(不用真实姓名).你发现他/她与两年前有很大变化.请你描述一下他/她的变化.

  intellectual, popular, outgoing, athletic, polite (有礼貌的), funny

  Yesterday on my way home I met a classmate of mine. We were in a primary school two years ago. I found he / she was much taller than before.

  ____________________________________________________________________

  ____________________________________________________________________

 

【参考答案点拨】

一、

  Parts of body(人体部分):

  ear  nose  neck  shoulder  arm 

  Conveyance(交通工具):

  subway  train  boat  plane  bus 

   

  Illness and discomforts(疾病和疼痛):

  headache  sore throat  stomachache  fever  backache 

  Frequency adverbs(频率副词):

  hardly  often  never  sometimes  always

  Vacation activities(假日活动):

  go camping  babysitting  go sightseeing  sports camp  go bike riding

二、

  1. C  2. C  3. A  4. C  5. A  6. D  7. A  8. B  9. D  10. B

  1. C,根据题意,又than经常与比较级连用。

  2. C,both与实义动词连用时,必须放在实义动词的前面。

  3. A,than经常与比较级连用, funny以辅音字母加y 结尾,应去掉 y 加上ier.

  4. C,a little可以用来修饰比较级,这儿的a little more outgoing than me意思是:比我外向一点儿。

  5.A,根据on weekends, 本题为一般现在是,主语是第三人称单数,动词用 likes,like doing sth和go fishing都是固定用法.

  6. D,用现在进行时表示将要发生的动作.

  7. A,表示很高兴接受别人的邀请时,常说: I'd love to.  意思是:我很乐意......

  8. B,two years ago 是一般过去时的时间状语。

  9. D,the same as 是固定用法,表示: 和......一样.

  10. B,Maria(玛丽亚)是女孩子的名字.

三、

  1. We both like doing the same things.

  2. Tom / Sam has shorter hair than Sam / Tom.

  3. We're playing tennis with the school team on Wednesday.

  4. Tim usually takes the subway to school.

  5. How often do you exercise?

四、

  1. staying  2. tired  3. walk   4. heavier  5. funny

  6. bicycle  7. love  8. lesson  9. leaving  10. concert

  1. How long 经常与延续性动词连用,又根据in Miami, 不能选leaving.

  2. 根据题中的hungry, 其它的形容词与hungry不能形成对照的关系.

  3. walk, next to school意思是:紧挨着学校.

  4. heavier, all the time意思是:总是,一直.

  5. funny, make sb. laugh意思是:逗某人大笑.

  6. bicycle, ride her bicycle, 动词短语:骑自行车.

  7. love, 表示很高兴接受别人的邀请时,常说: I'd love to. 意思是:我很乐意.

五、本题要求用比较级填空:

  1. heavier  2. more serious  3. bigger  4. more difficult  5. younger

  6. larger  7. longer   8. hotter  9. calmer  10. more athletic

六、

  1. often, visits, three, four times

  2. same as, outgoing

  3. clean, classroom 

  4. good at swimming

  5. look the same

  1. often, 每月拜访祖父母3到4次,表示频度用how often. 第一句中动词是does, 时态应该一致.

  2. the same as和......相同,是固定短语.

  4. be good at 擅长于......, at 是介词,后接动名词.

  5. look the same 看上去一样,是固定短语.

七、1.the;tallest 2.runs;faster;than 3.How;bag;is 4.Who;me;to;meet

5.parents 6.Where;are;they 7.than;mine 8.is;youngest;all

9.What are the teacher doing 10.Why;does

八、

A:1.The Falcon Hotel is nearer to the shop than the Seaview Hotel.

2.The Seaview Hotel is closer to the sea.

3.The Seaview Hotel is bigger.

4.The rooms in the Seaview Hotel are cleaner.

5.The staff in the Seaview Hotel is more friendly.

B: 6 ~10 B C A B D

九、 Yesterday on my way home I met a classmate of mine. We were in a primary school two years ago. Her name is Zhou Yan. I found she was much taller than before. She told me that she liked playing tennis. She was on the school team and she was very poplar in her school. So she looked more athletic than before. Then she told me that she studied well in her class. All her classmates and teachers said she was very intellectual. We talked for a long time. We talked a lot. She told me a lot of funny stories of her. I thought she was more outgoing and polite than before. At last we decided that we would play tennis together next Sunday.

  【情景对话】

   Section B

  2a

  Interviewer: Who is your best friend, Holly?

Holly: Pete.

Interviewer: Why is he a good friend?

Holly: Because he likes to do the same things as I do. He's popular,

too, and he's good at sports.

Interviewer: Are you good at sports, too?

Holly: Well, I like sports, but Pete's more athletic than I. I'd say

we're both pretty outgoing, though.

Interviewer: What else do you like about Pete?

Holly: He's funnier than I am, and he's wilder. I'm a little quieter.

Interviewer: How about you, Maria? Who's your best friend?

Maria: My best friend is Vera.

Interviewer: What do you like about her?

Maria: Well, she's a good listener, and she keeps secrets-that's

important to me.

Interviewer: Is she a lot like you?

Maria: Some people say that we look alike. We're both tall, and we both

have long, curly hair. But Vera is much quieter than I, and she's

also smarter. I'm more outgoing.

Unit 7 课文重难点解析

1. People transmit HIV by having unprotected sex... (Reading)

transmit... by doing sth.表“通过……传播疾病”。

 People may transmit SARS by staying close to each other.

 人们之间的密切接触可能会传播非典型性肺炎。

2. The disease is not the only thing that AIDS patients suffer from. (Reading)

suffer from表示“患有某种疾病;为……所苦;受……的折磨”,尤其指长期或习惯性地。如:

   He suffers from several diseases at present.

目前他身患几种疾病。

Our business has suffered from lack of investment.

我们的企业因缺乏投资而日子不好过。

注意: suffer也可用作及物动词,表示“遭受;承受;蒙受”,多接pain, loss, defeat, punishment 等表示痛苦、不愉快的事。如:

He suffered the loss of a leg during the war.

在战争中,他失去了一条腿。

3. Living with cancer has... for us to take every chance to live life to the fullest. (Integrating skills)

take chance的热点用法有:

1. 利用机会

Please take every chance to improve your English.

请利用一切机会来提高你的英语成绩。

2. 碰运气

We can’t take chances; we should be well prepared.

我们不能碰运气,我们应做好充分准备。

to the fullest表示“达到最大程度”。

I should help her to the fullest.

我应尽最大能力帮助她。

Unit 7考点透视 考例回顾

1. AIDS is a disease that breaks down the body’s immune system and.... (Reading)

【考点】 break down可作及物动词,作“破坏;使失效”解。也可作不及物动词,常表示“(计划,谈判等) 受挫折、失败”或“感情失去控制”或“(机器)停止运转”。

【考例】 News reports say peace talks between the two countries______ with no agreement reached.(NMET 2003)

A. have broken down

B. have broken out

C. have broken in

D. have broken up

【解析】由with no agreement reached (没达成任何协议)这一提示可知,全句要表达“和谈失败”之意。而break up“驱散,分开”;break in “插嘴”;break out“爆发”,都不符合句意,可排除。break down意为“(谈判等)失败”,符合句意,故选A。

2. She spends much of her time telling others about her disease and encouraging people to learn how to protect themselves. (Reading)

【考点】 及物动词encourage的意思是“鼓励”,表示“鼓励某人做某事”用encourage sb. to do sth.。

【考例】 My advisor encouraged ______ a summer course to improve my writing skills. (北京2004)

A. for me taking B. me taking

C. for me to take D. me to take

【解析】 根据短语encourage sb. to do sth.可知应选D。

3. I had been feeling sick for a long time and my mum had taken me to hospital to have me examined. (Integrating skills)

【考点】 过去完成进行时的构成是“had+ been+ doing”,表示从过去某时间开始到过去另一时间为止,该动作一直在持续进行着,它具有过去完成时和过去进行时二者的特征。

【考例】 The crazy fans ______ patiently for two hours’ and they would wait till the movie star arrived.(重庆2004)

A. were waiting

B. had been waiting

C. had waited

D. would wait

【解析】从and后的分句可知电影明星还没有到,所以当时还在“等”,体现了进行时态;从第一分句的时间状语for two hours可知是过去完成时,由此可知用过去完成进行时,故选B。

虚拟语气的几种常见句式

1. wish后的宾语从句

  表示现在不能实现的愿望,从句的谓语用过去式;表示过去未能实现的愿望,从句的谓语用had + 过去分词;表示将来不太可能实现的愿望,从句的谓语用would + 动词原形。如:

I wish I knew the answer to the question.

我真希望知道这个问题的答案。

  (事实上不知道)

I wish I had not wasted so much time.

我真希望没有浪费这么多时间。   

(事实是已经浪费了)

I wish you would go with us tomorrow.

但愿你明天跟我们一起去。

(你去的可能性不大)

2. as if 或as though引导的表语从句和状语从句

表示与现在事实相反,从句的谓语用过去式;表示与过去事实相反,用had +过去分词;表示与将来事实可能相反,用would + 动词原形。如:

She looks as if she were sick.

她看起来像病了似的。  (其实没病)

He looks as if nothing had happened to him.

他看上去好像什么事都没发生似的。

(事实是出问题了)

He talks about the book as if he had written it.

他说起那本书来就好像是他写的。

(书不是他写的)

如果as if / as though引导的从句所表述的内容与事实相符,应用陈述语气。如:

It looks as if our team is going to win.

看来我们队要赢了。

(场上情况表明有可能)

3. if only后的句子

表示现在没有实现的愿望,动词用过去式;表示过去没有实现的愿望,动词用had+过去分词;表示与将来事实可能相反的假设,谓语动词使用would+动词原形,could+动词原形或虚拟语气过去时,常译为“要是……就好了”。如:

If only I could learn English well in one day.

要是能在一天内把英语学好就好了。

(事实上做不到)

If only I had not been late for the interview.

要是我面试没迟到就好了。(事实上迟了)

If only Simon would reply to my letter.

要是西蒙能给我回信就好了。

(事实上不会回信)

4. would rather后的从句

表示现在的愿望,动词用过去式;表示过去的愿望,动词用had + 过去分词。

I would rather she were not present.

我宁可她不在场。 (事实是她在场)

I would rather he had told me the truth.

我宁可他告诉我事实真相。      

(事实是他没告诉我事实真相)

5. It is (about / high) time后的定语从句

表示该做某事而没做,从句谓语用过去式。

It is time that we went home.

我们该回家了。(实际没走)

It is high time that you went to bed.

你早该睡觉了。

6. advise, suggest, order, require, command, demand, desire, propose, insist, request等后的宾语从句常用虚拟语气,从句谓语动词用should+动词原形,should常被省略。

He proposes that we(should) discuss the problem further. 

他建议我们进一步讨论那个问题。

冷水江七中 袁蓉 王志平

Abstract:With the view of on-going 21 century and the development of modern education,the paper makes a study about how to build up a better language teaching environment supported by aids of multimedia technique.The paper discusses some ways of improving the teaching efficiency.

Key words:multimedia; application

With the deepening of quality-oriented education, the foreign language teaching idea is from regarding the teacher as the center to regarding the student as the centre. The teaching method is also changing. Teachers use multimedia technology more often than before, which makes classroom instruction vivid and lovely. Through multimedia teachers can make a better educational product by putting characters, charts, sounds, cartoons, images, etc. together. In English classes, when teachers use this kind of scene, it can greatly increase the interest of students and improve the ability to accept new things of students, with a result of getting double the result with only half the effort.

Modern multimedia teaching technology substitutes static, stiff teaching aids with excellent pictures and texts, and sounds and images are good, which puts“fresh blood ”into teaching, especially it has an amazing unique function on the students’ imagination. The application of the multimedia has already exerted an enormous influence on the foreign language teaching. First of all, in the classroom, it can transmit a large amount of knowledge and information to students fast and effectively. It is a great challenge for teachers.

1. Excite students' interest in learning

The application of the multimedia helps to excite students’ interest in learning. Making full use of multimedia technology can show some new words, stereos, and dialogues, which can make students place themselves in the environment of the language, and experience actual application of English. Thus, it can excite students’ interest in learning English. They are learning something while playing. The teacher can accomplish the task of teaching easily and it is easy for students to accept and remember it firmly, too.

2. Make the abstract thing picturesque

The use of multimedia technology can design abstract words, sentence patterns, and passages into a scene by putting them together through the cartoon and video. It can make the learning process active or quiet with excellent pictures and texts. Thus it makes students know English perceptually. Meanwhile, teachers can take advantage of the acoustics of the multimedia to strengthen the notice of students without purpose.

For example, while teaching the differences between general present tense and present progressive tense , it is very uninteresting that the teacher teaches grammars with the language and writing on the blackboard directly, and it is also difficult to memorize. Then we can make some multimedia courseware at this moment, by using a large number of colorful pictures, and vivid pictures to state the differences between them. And teachers can also let students make sentences or do exercises according to the pictures, in order to grasp these two tenses.

3. Increase contents of giving lessons

For example, in English teaching material Unit 6 Table Manners in SBI, it intends to let students find out the dining etiquette on the banquet in western culture, and compare the differences on the banquet between China and western countries. So teachers can expand the material related to the text, satisfy students’ desire for knowledge, and meet the need of the fast rhythm of the modern teaching.

4. Solve the important and difficult points better

By using multimedia, the important and difficult points can be designed into a corresponding English scenes and the ocular image can be demonstrated. Thus, it can strengthen the impressions of studying. For example, in order to emphasize the change of verb forms of the third person in the present tense, teachers can make different persons in the courseware with odd number and complex number and question students in different ways. At the same time, teachers can make the keywords into red color, very striking, which makes a deep impression on students.

5. Improve spoken language and listening

The auxiliary teaching of multimedia can improve students spoken language and listening. Traditional English teaching is that teachers instruct the spoken language of students directly. This kind of extensive reading has been influenced by teachers’ level and student’ ability to accept things. It is difficult for students to remember and to repeat the long text. But it is much simpler to use the multimedia courseware to solve this problem.

The demonstration of the multimedia video system let students experience. Make key words and phrases jump out, add some lively arrows, moving constantly, and add some music to have students enter the artistic conception unconsciously. Therefore, the task can be finished smoothly and it can also strengthen the students’ confidence.

The use of the multimedia technology in English teaching can optimize the students’ abilities of listening, speaking, reading and writing and finish the teaching goal better.

Years of teaching practice makes me realize that the good use of the multimedia teaching method is an important way to optimize the English teaching results. While handling classes, we can use the teaching method of the multimedia actively to improve the teaching quality of English. But it can’t be abused. We must choose and use the audio-visual education program media rationally according to the contents of the text, so that we can achieve the goal of optimizing English teaching.

高中英语应试辅导篇:说长道短话省略

同学们,你们知道英语中关于"省略"的语法现象吗?在日常生活中,只要不产生歧义,人们往往为避免重复而习惯于应用省略的手段,使得语言简洁、明快.当然,省略的情况五花八门,只有对其常见现象做到心中有数,这样才能有的放矢,应对自如.本文将从省略的三个方面予以剖析,以帮助同学们提高做这类题的应变能力。让我们--

  一、单词省略

  1.不定式符号to的省略

  ①四看(see watch, notice, look at),二听(hear, listen to),一感觉(feel),以及let, make, help,还有have之后的作宾补的不定式,但其被动语态中的to不能省略.例如:

  Though he had made his little sister cry, today he was made to cry by his little sister.

  ②词组do nothing but...,can't help but...,prefer to do sth. rather than do sth...., would do sth. rather than...,why not....等不定式中的to.例如:

  Rather than ______ on a crowded bus,he always prefers ______ a bicycle.

  A. ride; ride B. riding; ride C. ride; to ride D. to ride; riding

  注意:在下面四种情形下,为了避免重复,常承前省略不定式后的内容,但要保留不定式符号to.

  ①作hope, wish, like, want, expect, decide, mean, intend, refuse, try, need等宾语的不定式.例如:

  -Will the Browns go abroad this summer?

  -No. They finally decided .

  A. to B. not to C. not going D. not go

  ②作tell, ask, want, expect, warn等宾语补足语的不定式.例如:

  The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street but his mother told him ______ .

  A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not do

  ③在某些形容词,如:happy, glad, ready, anxious, eager, willing等后作状语的不定式.例如:

  -I'll be away on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my cat?

  -Not at all, ______ .

  A. I've no time B. I'd rather not C. I'd like D. I'd be happy to

  ④在某些结构,如:be able to, be going to be about to, ought to, have to ,used to等后作复合谓语的不定式.例如:

  -Alice, why didn't you come yesterday?

  -I ______ ,but I had an unexpected visitor.

  A. had B. would C. was going to D. did

  2.表虚拟的名词性从句中should的省略

  ①一坚持(insist),二命令(order, command),三建议(suggest, propose, advise ),四要求(demand, require, request, ask)后的主语、宾语从句中.例如:

  Jane's pale face suggested that she

  ill and her parents suggested that she ______ a medical examination.

  A. be; should have B. was; have C. should be; had D. was;has

  ②一个主意(idea),一个计划(plan),一个命令(order),三个建议(suggest, proposal, advice)等后的表语、同位语从句中.例如:

  The suggestion has been made that the football game ______ put off.

  A. should B. will be C. be D. has been

  ③It is necessary(important, impossible, strange, natural, a pity, no wonder) that...主语从句中.例如:

  It is necessary that the problem ______ at once.

  A. solves B. should solve C. will be solved D. be solved

  3.虚拟条件句中,含助动词,情态动词,动词be或have等,若将它们提到句首,则须省略if。例如:

  ______ it rain tomorrow ,we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge.

  A. Were B. Should C. Would D. Will

  4.连词的省略

  ①引导宾语从句的连词that在口语中常常省略,或并列的宾语从句中的第一个连词that也能省略.例如:

  He said (that)he had come here an hour before and that he had lived in a hotel.

  ②在定语从句中作宾语,且其前没有介词的关系代词,或先行词为way或time等时,常省略关系代词.例如:

  Do you still remember the name of the company ______ we visited last month?

  A. whose B. as C.\ D. where

  I don't like ______ you speak to her.

  A. the way B. the way in that C. the way which D. the way of which

  二、成分省略

  1.在选择疑问句、反意疑问句及一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、反意疑问句的答语中,通常都承前将重复的成分省略。例如:

  -He hasn't ever been to Dalian, has he(ever been to Dalian)?

  -No, he hasn't(been to Dalian).

  Do you like studying Chinese or(do you like studying)English?

  2.在时间、条件、地点、让步、方式等状语从句中,若谓语为be,主语同主句主语一致或主语为it时,常省略主、谓语.需要注意的是,谓语为实意动词时,若其与省略的主语间为主谓关系时,则用现在分词;若为动宾关系,则用过去分词。例如:

  Please send for a doctor as soon as(it is)possible.

  If ______ the same treatment again, he's sure to get well.

  A. give B. giving C. given D. being given

  三、替代省略

  1.think,believe,suppose,expect,imagine,hope等与so连用,替代肯定的宾语从句;与not连用,替代否定的宾语从句。例如:

  -Do you think it's going to rain over the weekend?

  - ______ .

  A.I don't believe B.I don't believe it C.I believe not to D.I believe not

  2."So / Nor(Neither)+谓语+主语"这种句型是用来替代前面提到的情况,表明它也适用于后者。例如:

  -I don't think I can walk any further.

  - ______ . Let's stop here for a rest.

  A. Neither am I B. Neither can I C.I don't think so D.I think so

“主谓一致”是重要的语法项目,也是学习难点和高考热点之一。因此,掌握好该语法点,对于面临高考的中学生来说,无疑是非常必要的。

英语中的一致是指句子成分之间或词语之间在人称、数、性、时态等方面保持一致,但最主要的是主语和谓语在数方面的一致关系。请看下面三道高考题:

1.Every possible means ____ to prevent the air pollution,but the sky is still not clear.(2000上海春招)

A.is used B.are used C.has been used D.have been used

2.____ of the land in that district ____ covered with trees and grass.(2000上海高考)

A.Two fifth...is B.Two fifth...are

C.Two fifths...is D.Two fifths...are

3.He is the only one of the students who ____ a winner of scholarship for three years.(2002上海春招)

A.is B.are C.have been D.has been

(Key:1-3 CCD)

从上面的考例可见“主谓一致”在中学英语中的重要地位。根据中学阶段所学内容,考生应掌握以下知识:

一、有生命意义的集体名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数形式。

常用的名词有:police(警察),cattle(牛),folk /folks(US)(人们),等等。如:

There were over 100 police on duty at the demonstration.游行期间有100多名警察值勤。

注:1.有些集体名词作主语时,如将其看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数;如将其作为个体成员看,谓语动词则用复数。常用的名词有:family(家庭;家庭成员),class(班级;班级学生),army(军队;士兵),committee(委员会;委员),team(队;队员),等等。如:

My family is a large one.我们家是个大家庭。

My family are watching TV now.我们家人现在正在看电视。

2.表示“某国人”的名词(如Chinese,Japanese,English,British,French等)作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

The Chinese usually use chopsticks for meals,while the British use knives and forks.中国人通常用筷子吃饭,而英国人用刀叉吃饭。

但是,有些单复数同形的名词(如 Chinese,Japanese等)作主语时,如果指具体的某个人,其谓语动词应用单数。如:

That Japanese is a singer.那个日本人是个歌唱家。

3.有些表示某类别的总称的集体名词(如machinery〈机械〉,clothing〈衣服〉,luggage〈行李〉,furniture〈家具〉等)作主语时,谓语动词常用单数。如:

My luggage was sent by air.我的行李是航空邮寄的。

二、“-s”结尾的表示“学科”、“疾病名称”等名词作主语时,谓语动词常用单数。

常用的名词有:politics,maths, physics,AIDS,等等。如:

Maths is my favourite subject.数学是我最喜爱的学科。

三、表示某些由两部分组成的物体的名词作主语时,谓语动词常用复数形式。常用的名词有:trousers,chopsticks,scissors,glasses,gloves,shoes,slippers,等等。如:

My trousers were bought in Shanghai.我的裤子是在上海买的。

但是,当这些名词前有pair时,谓语动词常与pair的数一致。如:

This pair of trousers was bought in Shanghai,but those two pairs of gloves were bought in Beijing.这条裤子是在上海买的,但那两副手套是在北京买的。

四、国名、地名、组织机构名称、书刊和杂志名等名词作主语时,谓语动词常用单数。如:

The United States is a developed country.美国是个发达国家。

Great Expectations has been translatedinto Chinese.《远大前程》已译成中文。

五、表示“时间、距离、钱额”等复数名词作主语时,常被看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数。如:

Ten years is a moment in history.十年在历史上是一瞬间。

One hundred kilometers is a long distance.一百公里是一段很长的距离。

Fifty pounds is too expensive.五十英镑太贵了。

如果将以上复数名词作为个体看待时,谓语动词常用复数。如:

Ten years have passed since I came to work in this school.自从我到这所学校工作以来,十年已经过去了。

六、由“名词+and+名词”结构作主语,表示同一种事物或同一人时,谓语动词常用单数。如:

Bread and milk is whole some food.面包牛奶是一种有益于身体的食物。

The singer and dancer has come.那位歌唱家兼舞蹈家来了。

七、由“every /each /no +单数名词 +and +every /each /no +单数名词”结构作主语时,谓语动词常用单数。如:

Every hour and every minute is important.每一小时,每一分钟,都很宝贵。

有时可将第二个every /each /no省略。如:

Each book and paper can be found in this room.每一本书,每一份文件,都可在此房间内找到。

八、“名词/代词+or+名词/代词”结构作主语时,谓语动词一般与or后面的名词/代词一致。如:

He or I am going to attend the meeting.他或者我将参加会议。

九、“名词+介词短语”作主语时,谓语动词一般与名词的数一致。

常用的介词和短语介词有:with,together with,along with,like,besides,as well as,but,except,except for,including等。如:

The teacher as well as the students is ready to help others.不仅学生们,而且老师也乐于助人。

The girl together with some boys has gone to plant trees.那个姑娘和一些男孩子一起去植树了。

Nobody but Tom and Mary was in the classroom.只有汤姆和玛丽在教室里。

十、由“either...or...;neither...

nor...;notonly...butalso...”连接的名词/代词作主语时,谓语动词常与最靠近的主语一致。如:

Neither the children nor the mother knows anything about it.孩子们和母亲都不知道这件事。

Are either you or I wrong?不是你错就是我错,是吗?

在英语口语中,甚至在正式英语中,“neither...nor...;either...or...”连接的名词/代词作主语时,也可采取概念一致的原则,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

Neither the cats nor the dog have been fed.那些猫和狗都没有喂过。

十一、不定代词all,some,any作主语时,如果指代可数名词,谓语动词用复数;如果指代不可数名词,谓语动词用单数。none作主语时,如果指代不可数名词,谓语动词用单数;如果指代可数名词,谓语动词用单复数均可。either和 neither作主语时,谓语动词常用单数,但在非正式语体中也可用复数。如:

All have gone home after school except a naughty boy who remains in the classroom.放学后除了一个淘气的男孩留在教室以外,所有的人都回家了。

All is well that ends well.结果好一切就好。

None of my classmates have /has been to the USA.我的同学都没有/一个也没有去过美国。

Either of the two boys is a League member.这两个男孩都是团员。

Neither of them knows the truth.他们谁都不知道真相。

十二、“分数/百分数+of+名词”结构在句子中作主语时,谓语动词与名词的数一致。如:

Three quarters of the surface of the earth is covered by water.地球表面的四分之三被水覆盖。

About sixty percent of the teachers in this school are women.这所学校里大约百分之六十的教师是女的。

十三、“The +形容词”表示一类人时,谓语动词常用复数形式。

常用的形容词有:rich,poor,living,dead,young,old,blind,sick,wounded,aged,disabled等。如:

In the old society,the poor were forced to sell their children.在旧社会穷人被迫卖儿卖女。

如果该形容词指抽象概念,谓语动词常用单数形式。如:

The new is always weak at first.新生事物开始时总是脆弱的。

The true is to be distinguished from the false.真与假应相区别。

The unexpected has happened.出乎意料的事发生了。

十四、动词不定式、动名词和从句作主语时,谓语动词常用单数形式。如:

Swimming in rivers in summer is a splendid sport,but to swim in rivers in winter needs great will power.夏天在江河里游泳是极好的运动,但冬天在江河里游泳需要极大的毅力。

Who he is doesn't concern me.他是谁与我无关。

但是,当what引导主语从句或由 and连接两个动词不定式或动名词作主语时,谓语动词的数应根据意义一致的原则来决定。如:

What we need here is money.我们这里需要的是资金。

What we need here are workers.我们这里需要的是工人。

Lying and stealing are immoral.说谎与偷窃是不道德的。

Practical American Spoken English

Part 1 Everyday Life

Everyday life is colorful. However, you won’t enjoy it if you can’t express yourself clearly. You can become the butt of a lot of jokes if you are not careful, which may not be a bad thing. But we all want to be as effective as we can. Let’s learn how to talk in English when we eat, drink and perform other daily tasks.

Topic 1 Meeting for the first time

Dialogue 1

Brian: Hi, I’m Brian.

Amy: Hi, I’m Amy.

Brian: Are you new here?

Amy: Yeah, I just got here yesterday.

Brian: I’ve got to run. Nice to meet you.

Amy: Me too. Have a good one!

Brian: Bye!

Amy: Bye. Take care!

Dialogue 2

Brian: Hi, I’m Brian.

Amy: Hi, I’m Amy.

Brian: Nice to meet you. Let me show you around.

Amy: Thanks. I appreciate it. How long have you been here?

Brian: Three years. It seems like I got here yesterday. Time flies.

New Words and Expressions:

appreciate: 欣赏,感激。

Have a good one:俚语,祝你愉快! Take care. 走好啊(小心啊)。

Time flies. 时间过得真快!

Notes:

在美国,第一次见面也可直呼其名,并没有什么不礼貌,反而让人感到你亲切易处。

Additional Expressions:

Hi, there. 你好。 Nice to meet you. 很高兴认识你。 I don’t think we’ve met before.我们好象没见过吧。 Hi, beautiful day, isn’t it? 嗨,天气真不错。 Excuse me, but aren’t you …? 对不起,你一定是…? Haven’t we met somewhere before? 我们是否在哪里见过?

Topic 2 Everyday Greetings

Dialogue 1

Brian: Hi, Amy. How are you doing?

Amy: Hi, Brian. I’m fine.

Brian: I’ve a 10 o’clock meeting. Catch you later.

Amy: OK. See you!

Dialogue 2

Brian: Good morning, Amy!

Amy: Good morning, Brian!

Brian: How’s everything?

Amy: Fine. How are you doing?

Brian: OK.

Amy: Just OK?

Brian: Yeah, just OK. Surviving.

Amy: That’s all we need.

Dialogue 3

Brian: Hi, Amy.

Amy: Hi, Brian.

Brian: What’s up?

Amy: Not much. How about you?

Brain: Bored.

Amy: What’s wrong?

Brian: I don’t feel like doing much.

Amy: How about going dancing tonight?

Brian: Cool! What time?

Amy: Let’s go at 8:00 o’clock.

Brian: Super! See you later alligator!

Amy: After a while, crocodile!

New Words and Expressions:

survive: 残存,勉强度日。

Catch you later. 一会儿见。

What’s up? 怎么样?

bored:很烦,表示一种心情。

See you later alligator! 和 After a while, crocodile! 是“再见”的玩笑说法。cool 和 super: 表示“酷”和“好极了”。

Notes:

OK 其实只是过得去的意思,并不是很好。在美国呆得越久,你就越感到“OK”的用处很多。“OK?”可以用来问“好吗?可以吗?”还可以用来肯定别人的问话。另一方面,“不太坏”实际是说“很好”。

Additional Expressions:

How are you doing? 你好吗? How’s everything? 一切还好吗? How are you getting along? 过得好吗/怎么样? Long time no see. How have you been?好久不见,近来好吗? Nice to see you again. It’s been a long time. 好久不见了,见到你真高兴。 Haven’t seen you in ages! 好久没见到你了! Where have you been hiding? 你藏到哪里去了?

Topic 3 Formally Meeting People

Dialogue 1

Brian: Hello, Dr. Liu. Let me introduce you to Professor Brown.

Professor Brown, this is Dr. Liu, a visiting scholar with

Professor Adams.

Dr. Liu: Hello, Professor Brown, nice to meet you.

Pro. Brown: Nice to meet you too. I have heard a lot about you.

Dr. Liu: Really? Nothing bad, I hope.

Pro. Brown: Of course not. You made a lot of new equipments by

yourself.

Dr. Liu: Yes. I programmed the equipments as well.

Pro. Brown: Great! We may need your help later on.

Dr. Liu: Sure. Just let me know when.

Pro. Brown: Thanks. I’ll talk to you later.

Dialogue 2

President Li: John, please meet Mr. Huang, CEO of Huang Pu Group.

Mr. Huang, John is our senior VP(vice president).

Mr. Smith: Nice to meet you.

Mr. Huang: Nice to meet you, too.

Mr. Smith: How long was your flight?

Mr. Huang: Sixteen hours. I had little sleep last night.

President Li: Tell me about it. It takes a week to get rid of the jet lag.

New Words and Expressions:

visiting scholar: 访问学者。

equipment: 仪器

program: 使…程序化。

get rid of: 摆脱

jet lag: 乘飞机产生的时差。

Tell me about it. 是啊。口语中表示肯定。

Tell me another. 我才不信呢!口语中表示否定。

Notes:

正式介绍两个或多个人认识时,要记得介绍他们的姓名、职务和相关的事。他们认识后再谈别的话题。

Additional Expressions:

How’s the family? 家里人都好吗? How’s your mother doing? 你母亲怎么样? How’s your work going? 工作如何? You look great today. 你看上去很精神。 What’s new? 最近怎样/有什么新闻? What’s going on? (一切)怎么样? Hey, man. 嗨,兄弟。 Yo, dude. 嗨,老兄。 May I introduce myself? 我可以自我介绍一下吗? Allow me to introduce myself. 请允许我做一下自我介绍。

Topic 4 Food from a Vending Machine

Dialogue 1

Amy: Hi, Brian. Where can I get a snack?

Brian: There is a vending machine around the corner.

Amy: How do you buy stuff from the machine?

Brian: You can use coins or dollar bills. Put the money in and push

the buttons of your choice.

Amy: Let me try.

Brian: See, it works!

Amy: All right! Thanks for the help!

Dialogue 2

Amy: Brian, I love chocolates.

Brian: You do? Why don’t you marry chocolates?

Amy: You are kidding all the time. I just got a White bar from the

vending machine.

Brain: How much did you pay?

Amy: A dollar fifty.

Brain: What a waste of money. I can buy three in the supermarket.

New Words and Expressions:

snack: 零食

vend: 贩卖

stuff: 泛指任何东西

it works: 行了,表示成功了。

You’re kidding all the time: 你

总开玩笑。

kid: 哄骗, 嘲弄。

Notes:

美国到处都是售货机。里面的东西都比超市里贵多了,尽量不用这些机器。

Additional Expressions:

I’d like you to meet Amy. 我希望你能认识一下艾米。 Do you know each other? Amy-Brain. 你们认识吗?这位是艾米,这位是布莱恩。 I’d like to introduce Amy to you. 我想把艾米介绍给你认识。 It’s great honor/pleasure to meet you. 很荣幸/高兴认识你。 Nice/ glad/ good to meet you. 很高兴认识你。 The pleasure is mine. 认识你是我的荣幸。 I’ve herd so much about you. 久闻大名!久仰,久仰! I’ve been looking forward to meeting you. 一直想能见到你。

Topic 5 Cafeteria and Buffet

Dialogue 1

Brian: Hi, Amy. What to grab something at the Cafeteria?

Amy: Sure. Let’s go.

Brain: What’s on the menu today? Do you know?

Amy: Oh yeah. Roast chicken is the main course plus side orders,

burgers and sandwiches. The soup is clam chowder.

Dialogue 2

Brian: What are you going to have?

Amy: I’ll have chicken with green bans. How about you?

Brain: I’ll have roast beef on wheat with lettuce and tomato.

Amy: Anything to drink?

Brian: Skim milk. You?

Amy: I’ll have orange juice.

Dialogue 3

Waiter: Good evening.

Brian: Good evening. Is it too late for buffet?

Waiter: No. It remains open till 9:00 p.m.

Brian: Good, thank you. A table for three, please.

Waiter: Sure, this way, please.

Brian: How do you charge kids?

Waiter: Children over 12 charged as adults; children between 8 and 12 are charged half of the adult price and for those under 8, free of charge.

Brian: Very good. My son is seven and half. Thank you.

Waiter: You are welcome.

Brian: Excuse me. Where can I find some milk?

Waiter: It’s over there. Beside the juice machine.

Brian: Oh, yeah, I see. Another question. Do you charge for champagne?

Waiter: Yes, sir. But beer is free.

Brian: OK, thanks.

Waiter: My pleasure. Please help yourself.

Dialogue 4

Amy: Which cafeteria do you prefer?

Brian: No.2. And you?

Amy: Me too. I’ll go the cafeteria with you.

(They get to the cafeteria)

Amy: It smells fantastic! I’ll eat a lot.

Brian: You always order more than you need.

Amy: We can share some this time.

Brian: Good. I’ll order beef.

Amy: The stewed cabbage with beef looks good. I’ll have that and a fish.

Brian: I’ll take some bread for two of us and wait for you at that table.

(After sitting down at the table)

Amy: Try some fish if you don’t mind.

Brian: Oh, it’s a wonderful meal! Delicious food, and a pretty girl! I like it very much.

Amy: Aha, you are flattering me again.

New Words and Expressions:

cafeteria: 食堂、自助餐厅。

grab something: 随便吃点东西

skim milk: 脱脂牛奶

yummy: 好吃

clam chowder: 奶油蛤肉汤

buffet: 自助餐

remain: 保持

charge: 收费

kids: 小孩

free of charge: 免费

champagne: 香槟酒

fantastic: 妙极了

share: 分享

stew: 炖

cabbage: 卷心菜

flatter: 奉承,拍马屁。

Additional Expressions:

I really appreciate your help.非常感谢你的帮助。 Thanks a million. 非常感谢。 Thank you for… 感谢你…… Thank you you all the same. 还是要谢谢你(用于别人的帮助没成功或你谢绝别人的帮助)。 It was nothing. 没什么。 My pleasure. 愿意效劳。 Don’t mention it. 不客气。 Anytime.随时效劳(用于表示你随时可为对方提供帮助时)。 Sure/Sure thing. 应该的(典型的美国应答方式)。 It’s a piece of cake. 小菜一碟。 No trouble at all. 一点不麻烦。 I’m glad to be of some help. 很高兴可以帮点忙。

Topic 6 Restaurant Food

Dialogue 1

Brian: Hi, Amy. What’re your lunch plans?

Amy: Not sure. Want to go out?

Brian: Sure. How about Italian?

Amy: I like it. Let’s go. You’ll have to drive.

Brian: No problem.

Dialogue 2

Waiter: Hi, are you ready to order?

Amy: Yes. I will have the Seafood Pasta.

Waiter: Lunch portion or dinner portion?

Amy: Lunch. Can I have a soup as well?

Waiter: Sure. It comes separately. Which soup would you like?

Amy: Vegetable.

Waiter: Anything to drink?

Amy: Just water.

Waiter: How about you?

Brian: I will have pizza.

Waiter: Large one or small one?

Brian: Small.

Water: Any toppings?

Brian: Mushrooms and sausage please.

Waiter: Anything else?

Brian: A small garden salad.

Waiter: What dressing?

Brian: Ranch.

Waiter: Anything to drink?

Brain: Water would be fine.

Waiter: Okeydoke. I’ll be right back with your soup and salad.

Dialogue 3 (Mary and Amy are talking in a restaurant)

Mary: Good evening, Amy.

Amy: Good evening Mary.

Mary: Have you ordered?

Amy: Yes. I ordered my meal just now.

Mary: What are you eating these days?

Amy: Potatoes.

Mary: Anything else?

Amy: Meat, vegetables and salads. You know I enjoy salads after returning from Thailand.

Mary: What kind of meat do you like best?

Amy: Steak, of course. But I like chicken, too.

Mary: Do you like vegetables and salads much?

Amy: So-so. But tell me, why do they like potatoes so much?

Mary: I don’t know. Why do other countries eat rice all the time?

Amy:: They have got used to it. The more you eat it, the more you like it.

Mary: That’s right. I have mutton every day, but I never feel tired of it.

Dialogue 4

Amy: I heard dining in a Western restaurant we have to pay much attention to some dos and don’ts.

Brian: Exactly. When you want to eat at a Western restaurant, you should first consider making a reservation.

Amy: If not, then what will happen?

Brian: You must risk having to wait for a long time for a table.

Amy: Anything else?

Brian: When eating, the Japanese and some Chinese are in the habit of slurping their food. By doing so, they show their host how much they like the food.

Amy: Then how do Westerners respond to this practice?

Brian: They find eating soup this way most unpleasant. They also consider picking one’s teeth and putting on makeup at the table no-nos.

Amy: What about tipping?

Brian: When it comes to tipping, they just leave some money on the table. The amount is up to you, but it’s usually 15 to 20 percent of the check.

Amy: I see.

New Words and Expressions:

Seafood Pasta: 海鲜面,pasta 面

食。

portion: 一份,一客。

topping: 盖料,浇头

Okeydoke=OK

order:点菜

Thailand: 泰国

steak: 牛排

So-so. 不怎么样,一般。

mutton: 羊肉

dos and don’ts: 该做和不该做的 slurp: 吃东西发出声

in the habit of: 有…习惯

soup: 汤

pick one’s teeth: 剔牙

makeup: 化妆

unpleasant: 不愉快

tip: 给小费

Notes:

在西方,点的菜可能伴有汤或沙拉,但也不一定。所以,侍者会提醒汤要另外算钱。面包一般是免费的。水也是免费,饮料一般比较贵,对身体也不利。

Additional Expressions:

I’m crazy about…/I really like…/ I’m fond of…/I’m interested in… 我喜欢…… It’s really not to my test. 实在不合我的胃口。 Oh, I’m full. Thanks.噢,我吃饱了,谢谢 That’s exactly my own view.那正是我的意思。 You took the words right out of my mouth.你说出了我心里的话。 We see eye to eye on this.我们的看法一致。 I’ll say.深表同感。 You can say that again.说得一点没错。 You got it.同意。 I’d say so.我也这么看。 Well said.说得好。

Topic 7 Drinks from a Vending Machine

Dialogue 1

Amy: Hi, Brian. Good morning! I want to use the vending machine

again. It’s fun.

Brain: Right. But it’s expensive. A pop costs a quarter in

supermarket, but sells for a dollar here.

Amy: What’s a pop?

Brian: Oh, sorry, pops are soft drinks or soda, like Coke, Pepsi, and

Sprite.

Amy: Maybe the best thing is water.

Brian: Yes, it doesn’t have chemicals like pops, and it’s free. The

best thing is free.

Amy: Cool. I’ll just have water.

Dialogue 2

Amy: Brain, I found something good for the vending machine.

Brian: What?

Amy: The blackberry apple juice.

Brian: Yeah. Tastes so good. I can’t resist it.

Amy: Your next one is on me.

Brain: Thank you so much!

New Words and Expressions:

pop: 泡波,是美国中西部称汽水

的俚语。

quarter: (25)美分

soda: 汽水,苏打水。

blackberry: 黑莓

resist: 抵抗,抵挡。

Additional Expressions:

I agree one hundred percent.我白分之百同意。tons of fun 非常有意思(Our party last night was tons of fun.) Really? But I think…真的吗?但是我认为…… I’m afraid I disagree with…恐怕我不能同意…… I can’t say that I share your view of…我不能说我同意你的意见…… That’s not the way I see it.我的看法和你不一样。 I’m not so sure about that. 我不太同意。 I’d like to have your opinion on… 我想听听你对……的意见。

Topic 8 Drinks in Cafeteria

Dialogue 1

Brian: Hi, Amy. Lunch time.

Amy: OK. Let’s go.

Brain: Been drinking a lot of water?

Amy: Yes, you know, you need eight cups of water every day. Pops

don’t count. 100% juice is OK.

Brian: So what are you going to drink for lunch?

Amy: Milk. Skim milk. I need some calcium.

Brian: Good idea. Everyone does.

Amy: Let’s get the drinks from the fridge.

Brian: Okay.

Dialogue 2

Amy: Brian, what’s this?

Brain: Oh, it’s Smoothy. It’s made of fresh fruits. Very good.

Amy: I want to try.

Brain: Good for you, just a bit expensive.

Amy: How much?

Brain: Two fifty.

Amy: What the heck! I’ll have it.

New Words and Expressions:

count: 计算

calcium: 钙

fridge: 冰箱的简称

What the heck! 管它呢!

Additional Expressions:

Do you have any opinion on…? 你对……有何意见? Have you got any comments on…? 你对……有何评价? How do you feel about…? 你觉得……怎么样? What’s your thoughts on…? 你对……的看法如何? What’s your impression of…? 你对…..的印象如何? In my opinion,…我觉得…… From my point of view,…依我看…… As far as I’m concerned,…据我所知…… If you ask me, I’d say…如果你问我,我会说…… From where I stand,…从我的角度而言…… Personally, I think/believe/feel/consider…个人而言,我认为/相信/觉得……

Topic 9 Drinks in Restaurant

Dialogue 1

Receptionist: Hello, good evening!

Brian: Good evening!

Receptionist: How many?

Brain: Two.

Receptionist: Smoking or nonsmoking?

Brian: None.

Receptionist: This way please. How about this table?

Brain: How about the booth over there?

Receptionist: Sure. The waitress will be right with you.

Dialogue 2

Waitress: Hi, how are you doing tonight?

Brian: Fine, thanks.

Waitress: Would you like to start the night with drinks?

Brain: What do you like, Amy?

Amy: Water is fine for me.

Brain: Come on, have some real drinks.

Amy: OK. I’ll have a Pink Lady.

Brain: That’s more like it. I’ll have a Vodka Collins.

Waitress: Our strawberry milkshake is really good.

Amy: OK. I want one.

Waitress: Large or small?

Amy: Large.

New Words and Expressions:

nonsmoking: 不吸烟

waitress: 女服务生

Pink Lady: 红粉知己(佳人)

Vodka Collins: 伏特加果酒

strawberry milkshake: 草莓冰

淇淋

Notes:

在美国或加拿大,餐馆都有吸烟区和不吸烟区。接待人员总是要问你想坐在哪里。

Additional Expressions:

It seems to me…对我而言…… Don’t you think…?难道你不认为……吗? Do you think I should…?你认为我应该…..吗? How do you feel about …?你觉得……怎么样? Do you really think…?你认为……有必要吗? Perhaps you’d better go and see a doctor.你最好去看看医生。 Why don't you go there by boat for a change?你为什么不换一种方式,坐船去呢? I think you ought to talk to Stone. 我认为你应该和石头谈谈。

Topic 10 Restrooms at Work

Dialogue 1

Amy: Hey, Brain. Have you seen John?

Brain: Yes. He is in the bathroom.

Amy: What? Is he taking a bath?

Brian: No. I mean he went to the restroom.

Amy: Do you think people rest in the restroom?

Brain: Kind of.

Amy: Oh, I need a break too.

Dialogue 2

Amy: Brian, where is the restroom?

Brian: If you go straight this way, there is one by the elevator.

Amy: Any other ones on this floor?

Brain: Yes, the other one is by the stairs on the other side on the

building.

New Words and Expressions:

restroom: 厕所,卫生间。 bathroom: 卫生间

Kind of. 有点那个意思。

elevator: 电梯

Notes:

在美国,卫生间有很多名字。 常常称为洗澡间。这就是为什么人们会开玩笑说某人在卫生间洗澡。但美国英语中 washing room, toilet, lavatory 都不常用。

Additional Expressions:

How about …?……怎么样? How would you like…?你觉得……怎么样? I’m thinking of going to…我在想准备去…… I intended to help you last night. 昨晚打算来帮你的忙。 I hope you’ll be able to…我希望你能…… We’d like to invite you to…我们邀请你…… I’d like(love) to, but I can’t.我很想去,但是去不了。 We would be pleased if you…如果你……我们会非常高兴。 I’d very much like you…我非常希望你……

Topic 11 Restrooms in Public

Dialogue 1

Brian: Excuse me? Where is the restroom?

Waitress: Go straight and turn left.

Brian: Thanks.

Waitress: You are welcome.

Dialogue 2

Brian: Amy, my Dad made a fool of himself yesterday.

Amy: What happened?

Brian: Well, he went into the Lady’s room.

Amy: How come? He is not a lady!

Brian: I’m not sure if he is a gentleman now. He does not speak

English. But he figured the Men’s room has a shorter word on the door than the Lady’s.

Amy: He is right. “Men” is a shorter word than “Lady”.

Brian: But the one he went to yesterday had “Ladies” and

“Gentlemen” on the doors.

Amy: Oh no! Poor man!

New Words and Expressions:

make a fool of: 捉弄

Men’s room: 男厕所

Lady’s room: 女厕所

figure: 计算, 琢磨。

Gentleman: 绅士

Oh no! 表示惊讶和惋惜。

Additional Expressions:

Is parking allowed here?这里允许停车吗? Do they permit smoking here? 这里允许抽烟吗? Not as far as I know. 据我所知不行。 I don’t think so.我想不行吧。 Could you possibly mail these packages?你可以把这些包裹寄出去吗? Do you mind opening the door for me?帮我开下门行吗? May I leave a message for him?我能给她留个条吗?Absolutely sure.当然了。

Topic 12 Finding Ads for Apartment

Dialogue 1

Amy: Hi, Brian. Where do I find the ads for apartments?

Brian: Oh, you can look at the newspaper’s classified section.

Amy: The apartments there are mostly far from school.

Brian: There is a housing office at our school as well, inside the

Student Center.

Amy: That must be a good place to find housing.

Brian: Yes. Try there. Good luck!

Amy: Thanks.

Brian: Sure.

Dialogue 2

Amy: Guess what, Brian.

Brian: What?

Amy: I found many good apartments for rent in the library.

Brian: Oh, yeah, on the ads board at the door, right?

Amy: Yes.

Brian: How do you know they are good?

Amy: Cheap and close to school.

Brian: I see.

New Words and Expressions:

ad: advertisement 的简略语。电

视上的ad 也叫

commercial。

apartment: 公寓,英国英语称

为flat。

house: 单栋的房子,通常住一

户人家。

housing office: 租房办公室

classified ads: 报纸和杂志上的

分类广告

Notes:

到美国去读书,首先要找一个住的地方,除非有人提供或帮你找好了。住房的广告可以在当地报纸上、杂志上、租房小册子、学生中心、学校租房办公室、图书馆和学校楼里的广告板上找到。

Additional Expressions:

There is no chance it’s going to rain.绝对不会下雨。 I have no doubt she can do something for you.我毫不怀疑他可以帮你。 I not certain.我不能肯定。 Sorry, I’m not really sure about it.对不起,我不能确定。 I’m really annoyed with my boss.我真是讨厌我的老板。 This place makes me sick. I can’t put up with it any more.这地方让我恶心,我再也不能忍受了。 Shut up! That’s really too much! Who do you think you are?住口!太过分了!你以为你是谁呀?

Topic 13 Renting an Apartment

Dialogue 1

Brian: Have you got a place to stay?

Amy: No. I’m still looking for an apartment.

Brian: To share with others or to live in by yourself?

Amy: I can share a kitchen and a restroom, but I want my own

bedroom.

Brian: That will save you some bucks. If you rent by yourself, $400 a

month is the minimum.

Amy: I’m not rich. Let me know if someone is looking for a

roommate.

Brian: Sure. I’ll keep my ears open. Do you want to sign a lease?

Amy: I prefer no lease. But if I have to, I will.

Brian: Do you want to include utilities?

Amy: I think so. It’s cold here in the winter. I want a warm

apartment.

Brian: Do you prefer furnished or not?

Amy: Unfurnished. They charge too much for the furniture. It’s

cheaper to buy my own furniture at yard sales.

Brian: You are right. Happy house-hunting!

Dialogue 2

Landlord: Do you like the apartment? It’s just like a home.

Amy: Yes. How much is it?

Landlord: $500 a month, including utilities.

Amy: Can I bring a roommate?

Landlord: That’s fine. It’s a two-bedroom apartment.

Amy: When is the rent due?

Landlord: The 1st of each month. I also need one-month deposit.

Amy: What’s the deposit for?

Landlord: If anything is damaged during you stay, it will be paid from

you deposit.

Amy: There is no lease, right?

Landlord: It’s up to you. If we don’t sign a lease, we have no contract.

Amy: I prefer no lease.

Landlord: OK. When do you want to move in?

Amy: The 1st of next month.

Landlord: OK. Let’s sign the agreement now.

Amy: OK.

Landlord: I’ll get the apartment ready. You can come to get the keys the

day before you move in.

Brian: Thanks.

New Words and Expressions:

share: 合租

buck: 俚语,元。

lease: 合约

furnished: 有家具的

furniture: 家具

utility: 公用事业。这里指水

电暖气费。

deposit: 押金

damage: 损坏

contract: 合同

agreement: 协议

Notes:

租房时,房东常常要求签约。如果签约,那你就要住满规定的时间。提前搬走,是毁约,要赔偿房东。同样,房东也不能要求你提前搬走。不然他也是毁约,也要赔偿。

Additional Expressions:

I’ve had enough of you. I don’t want to see you any more. 我受够了!再也不想见到你了。 Get out of here and never come back!滚出去!再也别回来! Could you do me a favor?你能帮我个忙吗? Is there any chance you could drop off this package for me at the post office?可不可以帮我把这个包裹顺路送到邮局去? Here, let me help you.嗨,我来帮你。 Is there anything I can do for you? 有什么要我帮忙的吗? No, don’t bother, really.不用麻烦了,真的。 Thank you for offering, but I can manage it myself.谢谢你,我自己能行。

文/张卫玲

高考日期一天天临近,一些考生对英语复习开始盲目地进行题海战术,他们把自己弄得很疲惫但又收效不高。往往是做过的题目一错再错,有些题即使当时弄通、弄懂了,但仍是印象不深,再次碰到时还会犯同样的错误。如何在较短的时间内减少错误率,提高单位时间复习效率成为同学们急需解决的一大难题,由此错题“病历卡”应用而生。

错题“病历卡”是种比较简单而且效果较佳的学习方法。教师在复习题目讲解中对此体验很深。众所周知医生的病历卡是用来记录病人的病情,对症下药,及时诊治疾病之用。而我们的错题“病历卡”则专门用来记录同学们在复习过程中所作过的错题,相应的讲解,及知识点的分析。如何做好具体的“病历卡”需要大家做好如下几个方面的工作:

首先,准备一些大小相等,易于整理又便于随身携带的小卡片。整理时在卡片的上方标上知识点所属类别。在正面将所遇到的错题原文摘抄下来。背面写上正确答案及具体的分析。如:错误的原因,做题的思路,解题方法等。这里需要提醒同学们注意的是,在书写错题分析前一定要认真在课上听老师对题目的讲解,或是课下去请教老师,把做错的原因真正弄懂,然后在做卡片的记录。

其次,大家要注意在制卡的过程中不同题型宜选用不同的处理方式。上面提到的比较适合基础知识中单项选择题目的积累。例如习题: Go and get your coat. It’s _____ you left it. A. there B. where C. there where D. where there 一般同学看到后容易选C,误认为定语从句,实际正确答案为B。制作卡片时正面抄上该题,并注明考点为对复合句的考查。然后在背面的讲解中指出C选项中there为副词,不能引导定语从句, 充当先行词的为名词或代词。系动词is 后面为where 引导的表语从句。对于听力,完形或是改错我们可以摘取带知识点的关键句,巩固记忆。如改错中有这样一句“We were about to leave while he came.” 此句可以收集在卡中做为单句该错之用,背面书写正确答案,We were about to leave when he came.并指出句型 be about to do when… (某人刚要做某事突然。。。。。。),同时注上when与while的区分。再比如听力练习中有的同学对某个话题的考察把握不好。听力过后我们可以把同一话题中所涉及的基本词汇积累下来。卡片上方标上听力 ----- 基本词汇。如有关飞行的:take off land on board pilot air hostess flight boarding card aircraft etc..

最后要提醒同学们注意的是及时总结,及时回顾。制作卡片不是我们的最终目的。在翻看错题时,同学们要注意对知识点的记忆和积累。慢慢删掉完全掌握的习题,以减少复习时间。

希望同学们在最后的复习阶段合理调整考前时间,掌握科学复习策略。巧用错题“病历卡”,提高复习效率。

Unit 12

load n.[C]

1.) 装载;担子 The load on that beam is more than it will bear. 那根梁上的载重超过了它所能承受的量。

2.) (精神方面的)负担;重任 The good news has taken a load off my mind. 听了这个好消息我就放心了。

3.) (车,船等的)装载量;一车(或一船等)货物 The truck was carrying a load of sand. 卡车装运一车沙子。

4.) 工作量

Measures have been taken to lighten the load of the hospital doctors.已采取措施减轻医院医生的负担。

vt.

1.) 装,装载[(+with)] The workers are loading the ship with coal. 工人正把煤装上船。

2.) 把弹药装入(枪,炮);把胶卷装入(照相机) Don\'t forget to load your camera. 别忘了给你的相机装胶卷。

3.) 使摆满;使充满;使长满 [(+with)] The air was loaded with soot. 空气充满煤烟。

4.) 大量给予[(+with)] His brothers and sisters loaded him with books. 他的哥哥姐姐送给他许多书。

vi. 1.) 装货[(+up)] Have they finished loading up yet? 他们把货物装完了吗?

2.) 上子弹 The soldiers loaded and fired. 士兵们装上子弹便射击。

Compulsory adj.

1.) 必须做的;义务的;必修的 Is English a compulsory subject?英语是必修科目吗?

Education is compulsory for children in most countries. 多数国家对儿童实施义务教育。

2.) 强制的,强迫的 compulsory legislation强制性立法

tendency n.[C]

1.) 倾向;癖性;天分[(+to/toward)][+to-v]

He has a tendency towards pessimism.他有悲观的倾向。

Bob has a tendency to exaggerate things.鲍勃有爱夸张的倾向。

2.) 趋势,潮流[(+to/toward)][+to-v]

There is a tendency towards regional cooperation.有一种地区性合作的趋势。

3.) 倾向;意向 His new magazine has anarchic tendencies.他的新杂志有无政府主义倾向。

drop out

1.) 脱离 Luckily, I dropped out before the deal turned sour. 很幸运的,在交易变坏前我已退出了。

One of my teeth has dropped out. 我的一只牙齿掉了。

2.) 退出;退学 She dropped out of school to become a waitress. 她退学去当女招待。

expand vt.

1.) 展开,张开(帆,翅等) The eagle expanded its wings. 老鹰展开翅膀。

2.) 使膨胀;使扩张

3.) 扩大;扩充;发展 He is thinking of expanding his business. 他正考虑扩展他的生意。

4.) 详述 They have expanded my view on the question. 他们已更充分地阐明了我对这个问题的观点。

vi. 1.) 展开,张开 2.) 扩张;发展;增长

In ten years the city\'s population expanded by 12%. 十年之中,该城人口增加了百分之十二。

3.) 膨胀 Water expands when it freezes. 水结冰时体积膨胀。

A tire expands when you pump air into it. 轮胎打了气就会胀大。

4.) 详细说明[(+on/upon)]

distribute vt.

1.) 分发;分配[(+to/among)] They had distributed the lands among the peasants. 他们把土地分给农民。

2.) 散布,分布[(+over)]

This species of butterfly is widely distributed over our country. 这种蝴蝶在我国分布很广。

3.) 分,分开[(+into)] The teacher distributed the pupils into three groups. 老师把学生分成三组。

donate vt.

捐献,捐赠[(+to)] She donated her books to the library. 她把自己的书捐赠给图书馆。

donate blood献血

vi. 捐献,捐赠[(+to/towards)] My husband donates to that group every year. 我丈夫每年都捐钱给那个组织。

donation n.[(+to)]

1.) 捐献,捐赠[U][C] She made a donation of $5,000 to the Children\'s Hospital. 她捐了五千美元给儿童医院。

2.) 捐款;捐赠物[C]

curriculum n.[C]

1.) 学校的全部课程

The student is very knowledgeable because he also studies things not in the curriculum.

这个学生知识很丰富,因为在学校课程以外他还学习别的东西。

2.) (一门)课程

The professor is busy preparing his chemistry curriculum plan. 这位教授正忙于准备他的化学课程计划。

profession n.

1.) (尤指受过良好教育或专门训练者,如律师、医生、教师的)职业,专业[C]

She intends to make teaching her profession. 她打算以教书为业。

2.) 同业,同行[sing.]

The teaching profession claim that they are badly paid. 教师同行们声称待遇太差。

He is a leading member of the medical profession. 他是医疗业中首屈一指的医生。

3.) 声明;表白[C][(+of)] She did not believe in his professions of love. 她不相信他的爱情表白是真的。

比较:career n.

1.) (终身的) 职业,事业[C] He wasn\'t interested in her stage career. 他对她的演戏职业不感兴趣。

2.) 经历;生涯;历程[C]

He found it both interesting and instructive to learn about the careers of great men.

他觉得了解伟人的生平既很有趣又有教益。

比较:occupation n.

1.) 工作,职业[C] What is your father’s occupation? 你父亲的职业是什么?

2.) 消遣;日常事务[C][U] He was bored for lack of occupation. 他因无所事事而感到厌烦。

3.) 占领,占据;占领时期[U]

The Japanese occupation of Taiwan lasted fifty-one years. 日本占领台湾达五十一年之久。

4.) 占用;居住;占用(或居住)期

No one is yet in occupation of the house. 这所房子还没有人住进去。

所以,在三个表示职业的词中,profession n.(尤指受过良好教育或专门训练者,如律师、医生、教师的)职业,专业,[C];career n. (终身的)职业,事业[C];occupation n.职业,工作 [C],是一种泛指。

advocate vt.

拥护;提倡;主张[+v-ing]He advocates reforming the prison system. 他主张改良监狱制度。

obtain vt. 得到,获得 He failed to obtain a scholarship. 他没有获得奖学金。

They obtained a loan from the government. 他们从政府那里得到一笔贷款。

vi. 得到公认;通用;流行;存在

Those conditions no longer obtain. 那些情形已不存在。

The custom still obtains in some areas. 某些地区仍保留着这一习俗。

gain vt. 1.) 得到; 获得, 赢得 (战争、诉讼等有用、需要之物)

Our army gained the battle. 我们的军队赢得了那场战役。

He gained possession of more land. 他拥有了更多的土地。

2.) 获得(利益、利润等) I gained $3 by selling it for more than I paid for it. 我可以贱买贵卖获利3 美元。

3.) 增加,增添 I gained five pounds in a week. 我一个星期体重增加了五磅。

obtain 和gain两个词在表示“获得”时,有下面的区别:

To obtain means to get esp. by making some effort;

To gain means to get or obtain something useful, necessary, wanted, etc esp. over a length of time and as an addition to what one has

select vt.

选择,挑选,选拔[(+for/from)]

He selected a team for the special task. 他为这项特殊任务挑选了一组人马。

Mr. Reed has been selected to represent us on the committee. 里德先生代表我们已被选入委员会。

vi. 做出选择,挑选

adj. 1.) 挑选出来的;精选的

A select group of their friends was invited to the wedding. 他们的经过挑选的一群朋友应邀参加婚礼。

2.) 上等的,优等的,卓越的 She only stays at select hotels. 她只住一流旅馆。

select/elect/ choose的区别

choose指在两个或多个中选择其一,可与from或between连用;select通常是指同类事物中选择最好或最合适的;elect 则指通过选举选出。

Will you help me choose myself a new coat? 请你帮我选一件新外套,好吗?

If you had to choose (between) staying here alone or going with me, what would you do?

是一个人呆在这里,还是同我一起去,如果你必须对此做出选择,你会怎么做呢?

He selected a pair of socks to match his suit. 他挑选了一双与他所穿的衣服相配的短袜。

They elected Nixon as President. 他们选举尼克松为总统。

choose和 elect 都有“决定”的意思,只是elect 比choose 正式,并常常指有关将来的重大的大决定。在结构上,choose 之后还可有that 引导的宾语从句。

He chose not to go home until later. 他决定晚些时再回家。

He chose that we should stay. 他决定说,我们得留下来。

He elected to be a doctor. 他决定将来当一名医生。

suit n. (一套)衣服[C] I picked out a black suit. 我挑了一套黑色西装。

vt. suit 1.) 适合,中...的意

Would Friday morning suit you? 星期五早上对你合适吗?

The arrangement suited us both. 这个安排对我们两人都合适。

2.) (不用被动式) 与...相配,与...相称 This dress suits you beautifully. 这件衣服你穿非常合适。

3.) 使合适; 使适应 [(+to)] Her speech was well suited to the occasion. 她的讲话在这个场合十分得体。

vi. 1.) 合适,适当 Will that time suit? 这时间合适吗?

2.) 相称; 彼此协调 [(+to/with)] The position suits with his abilities. 这个职位与他的能力相称。

比较:fit作动词的用法

vt. 1.) (衣服)合...身;与...相称 This dress doesn\'t fit me. 这件衣服不适合我穿。

2.) 适合于;使适合 [(+for)]

Her training fits her for the job. 她所受的训练使她能胜任这项工作。

We must fit the action to the word. 我们必须言行一致。

3.) 安装 Can you fit the electric fire for me? 你能替我装上电炉吗?

vi. 1.) (衣服)合身;适合 Does this shirt fit? 这件衬衫合身吗?

2.) 符合;配合

重难点解析

● Listening and speaking

1. People aged 15 and over who are unable or find it very difficult to read.

十五岁及以上不识字或识字有困难的人。

(1)aged 形容词。①本句中意为“有…岁的,…年纪的。”

e.g. Among the smokers, about 20 percent of them are children aged between 13 and 15 years old.

百分之二十的吸烟者是13至15岁的儿童。

In the morning old people get up early and practice Qigong in groups in parks, and a lot of middle-aged people dance together.清晨,老年人早起在公园里成群地练气功,中年人在一起跳舞。

② aged 还有“年老的”意思。 “the aged”指“老年人”。

e.g. The sick and the aged need our help. 这些病人和老年人需要我们的帮助。

The aged woman was wrinkled and bent. 这个老妇人满脸皱纹,佝偻着腰。

● Reading

1. In China, as in other countries, the government realizes that the future welfare of its citizens is closely linked to education. 在中国,正如在别的国家,政府意识到公民未来的幸福与教育紧密相关。

(1) as in other countries,相当于as it is in other countries, it 指代的是后面提到的情形。

e.g. In India, as in China, you can enjoy ancient culture and attractive scenery.

在印度,正如在中国,你可以领略到古老的文化和迷人的风景。

(2) be closely linked to “与…紧密相关的”。由“link sth to(with) sth”而来,意为:“使和…联系起来”。相当于“be related to”.

e.g. Ice and snow are closely linked to the lives of Canadians. 冰与雪与加拿大人的生活紧密相关。

Violence is the activity that has been most frequently linked with the consequences of TV.

暴力行为往往与看电视的后果相联系。

2.In areas where agriculture plays an important role, people do not attach importance to education, and parents are skeptical of anything that takes children away from their work on the farm. 在农业占主要地位的地区,人们并不重视教育,父母亲对任何有碍他们的孩子干农活的事都持怀疑态度。

(1)attach importance (significance )to 意为“重视”。

e.g. Do you attach any importance to what he said. 你认为他说的话重要吗?

The government should attach importance to various types of education to meet the needs of the changing world. 政府应当重视发展各种类型的教育以适应不断发展的社会。

(2)be skeptical of /about 表示“(对某事物)不肯相信,常怀疑的(unwilling to believe sth)”。

“skeptical”为美式拼写, 在英国英语中拼成“skeptical”.

e.g. I’m rather skeptical about their professed sympathy for the poor.他们声称同情穷人,我对此有些怀疑。

They say apple clean your teeth, but I’m skeptical about that myself.

他们说苹果能清洁牙齿,我对此持怀疑态度。

3. China and other countries found that even when children from the countryside do start school, they have a tendency often to be absent and often drop out later. 中国和别的国家都发现,即使这些农村来的孩子真的开始上学,他们也总有逃学并最终辍学的倾向。

have a tendency to do do sth 意为“倾向,趋向。” “tendency” 的动词为“tend”

“tendency” 还可构成“(have) a tendency to /towards”的词组。

e.g. Milk has a tendency to go sour in hot weather . 热天牛奶易变坏。

Boys have a stronger tendency to fight than girls. 男孩比女孩更有打斗倾向。

All children have a tendency towards illness. 小孩都较易患病。

(1) drop out 表示“退出,掉队,退学”之意。

e.g. The class began with ten students, but several have dropped out within the last month.

这个班级开始时有10个学生,但在最后一个月时,好几个人退学了。

Teenagers who drop out of high school have trouble finding jobs.

中途辍学的青少年求职时会碰到困难。

4. China’s large population meant that the schools had to expand to take in many more students. 中国大量的人口意味着学校不得不扩大以接纳更多的学生。

(1) mean在此句中意为:“意味着…”后面可以跟名词、动名词或从句。

e.g. Life to him meant action, rather than thought. 对他来说,生活意味着行动,而不是思索。

I won’t wait if it means delaying more than a week. 我不会等待,如果这意味着耽搁一个多星期。

In some parts of London, missing a bus means waiting for another hour.

(2002上海春招) 在伦敦的一些地区,错过一辆巴士意味着得再等一个小时。

(1) expand 表示“扩大,增大(become greater in size, number or importance)”.

e.g. Our foreign trade has expanded greatly in recent years. 我们的对外贸易近来有极大的发展。

His modest business eventually expanded into a supermarket empire.

他原先不大的生意后来扩展成了超级市场集团企业。

(4)take in 本句中意为“接受,接纳。”它还可以表示以下等含义:

① 理解,领会,明白

e.g. They listened to my lecture, but how much did they take in, I wonder?

他们听了我的讲座,但是我怀疑他们到底听懂了多少。

② 包括,涉及

e.g. The article takes in all aspects of the problem. 这篇文章包括了这个问题的所有方面。

③ 欺骗,使上当

e.g. Don’t trust that fellow, he’ll take you in if he gets the chance.

不要相信那个家伙,他一有机会就回会骗你。

④ 将(衣服)收小,改瘦。

e.g. I’m getting much thinner, I’ll take in all my clothes. 我瘦多了,我得将我所有的衣服都改小。

5. In north and central Australia the population is so spread out that children in some rural settlements can be as far as 1,000 km away from the nearest school. 在澳大利亚的中北部地区,人口非常分散,以至于一些居住在乡村地区的儿童离最近的学校也有1000公里路。

spread out 表示“散开”的意思。

e.g. Halong Bay in Vietnam is made up of three thousand islands spread out in the clear green waters of the sea. (SEFC B 2B U15) 越南的九龙湾由三千个岛屿构成,这些岛屿散布在蔚蓝清澈的大海中。

Don’t all sit together, spread yourselves out. 别都挤在一块儿,分开坐吧。

6. In these countries, where some people do not even have fresh water or basic health care, reaching the target of “Education for All” will be a huge task, despite help from the international community. 在这些国家里,有些人甚至不能喝到新鲜的水,得到基本的健康护理,要达到普及教育的目标将是一个艰巨的任务,尽管能得到国际社社会的支持。

(1) 此句中where引导的定语从句限定前面的countries. 本文中出现了较多的where 引导的定语从句。应注意前面的先行词。如:

① In the Turks and Caicos Islands, where there are less than 20,000 people, the number of students in some schools is so low that students of several different grades are taught in the same class.

在特克司和凯科斯群岛, 人口不足两万,有些学校学生数量很少,以至于几个不同年级的学生在同一间教室里上课。

② To solve this, Australia uses “distance learning” method, where the students have lessons by two-way radio and mail.

为了解决这个问题,澳大利亚采用了远程教学的方法,学生们可以通过双向广播和邮件传递来学习。

● Language study

1. In today’s world of computerized working and developing technology, continued education is often essential for people to meet the changing requirements of their profession. 在工作电脑化和科技不断发展的今天,为了满足人们职业的不断变化的需求,继续教育是非常必要的。

(1) 此句中应注意几个非谓语动词computerized, continued , developing和changing,在句中作定语, 分别限定其后面的名词。过去分词表被动,现在分词表示正在进行。

(2) computerize “用计算机做某事,使计算机化”。

e.g. The accounts section has been completely computerized. 会计科已完全计算机化了。

computerize 的后缀- ize或 –ise表示“使…,…化”。类似结构的词有modernize(现代化), realize(意识到),apologize(道歉),popularize(使…受欢迎)等。

(3) 此句中continued为形容词,作定语。 意为:“继续不停的(going without stopping)”。

e.g. We have accumulated rich experience for the continued education of government employees and professionals.我们在组织和实施公务员和专业技术人员继续教育方面积累了相当丰富的经验。

(4) meet/satisfy/ fulfill the requirements “满足…的需求”。

e.g. Our latest model should meet your requirements exactly. 我们的最新型号包你满意。

In applying for the position of sales manager I offer my qualifications, which believe will meet your exacting requirements.为了申请销售经理的职位,附上我的合格证书,我认为会符合你们严格的要求的。

Your essay should cover all the information provided and meet the requirements below:

你的文章应该包含提供的所有信息,并满足以下要求。

2. Parents are not prepared to send girls to school because they do not believe it will be

of any benefit. 父母亲不愿意把女儿送去上学,因为他们认为这不会带来任何好处。

(1) 此句中be prepared to 意为“能够并愿意做某事(be able and willing to do sth)”。

e.g. I am prepared to lend you the money if you promise to pay it back.我愿意把钱借给你,你得答应还给我。

I ’m not prepared to stay and listen to these outrageous insults.我可不愿意在这儿受这种奇耻大辱。

(2)be of benefit to

① be of benefit to “对…有好处”。benefit前可用“real, great, much, immense”等形容词修饰。

e.g. Doing morning exercises will be of benefit to your health. 做早操对你的健康有利。

② "(be)+of+名词"结构中的名词是抽象名词时,相当于其中名词所对应的形容词

的意思,说明被修饰词具有某种特征或属性。常用的名词有:

use/importance/help/value/interest/quality/service/benefit/necessity等。

e.g. I don't want to hear what you are saying. It is of no interest to me. (of no interest=not interesting) 我不想听你说,我对此不感兴趣。

Coal is of great importance to the development of industry. (of great importance=very important) 煤对工业发展是相当重要的。

New Zealand wine is of high quality and is sold all over the world.

(SEFC BI U 18) 新西兰的酒质量很好,并且被销往世界各地。

You'll find this map of great ________in helping you to get round London.(Key: C)

A. price B. cost C. value D. usefulness

3. However, when the facts are examined, it is clear that educating girls leads to

improved health and levels of income. 然而,仔细观察事实可以发现,显然让女孩接受教育,最终可以改善健康状况和提高收入水平。

(1) 此句中应注意句型It is clear that …,it 是形式主语,真正的主语是that引导的从句。从句的主语是动名词短语educating girls, improved health and levels of income作lead to 的宾语。

类似的句型有:

It is clear ( obvious, true, possible, certain....) that .....

常译为“清楚(显然,真的,肯定...)”, 是主语从句最常见的一种结构。

e. g It is very clear that he’s round and tall like a tree.   

=That he’s round and tall like a tree is very clear.

It was obvious to everyone that the child had been badly treated.

大家都清楚那个孩子受过虐待。

(2) lead to sth “导致某种结果( have sth as its results)”。 lead to中的to为介词。

后跟名词或动名词, 2003年上海高考题中,thief与catch 之间是被动关系, 故用了动名词的复合结构的被动形式。

e.g. The discovery of new evidence led to _______ .('03上海) (key C)

A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught

It is widely accepted that young babies learn to do things because certain acts lead to rewards。

婴儿学会做事情,因为它的某些行为能有所回报,这个观念为人们所普遍接受。

The person must look for information that will make the problem clearer and lead to possible solutions. 2001年春季高考英语试题(北京卷完形)

这个人必须查寻信息,使问题更清晰,并找到可能的解决方法。

(3) improved health 其中的“improved” 是过去分词作定语,限定health。

e.g. School health programs lead to increased student wellness and improved ability to learn.

学校的健康活动改善了学生的身体状况,并且也提高了学生的学习能力。

He believes that only hard work and perseverance can lead to improved performance.

他相信只有努力和毅力才能提高他的表演水平。

● Integrating skills,

1. Learning style theory suggests that different people have different ways of obtaining information and use various methods to demonstrate their intelligence and ability.

学习风格理论表明不同的人有不同的获得信息的方式,并且用不同的方法表现出他们的智力和能力。

(1) suggest

①本句中suggest表示“暗示、表明”时,后接名词或that从句(从句谓语用陈述语气)。

e.g. Are you suggesting that I’m too old for the job? 你的意思是说我太老而不能胜任这个工作了?

His failure in the exam suggested that he had not worked hard enough.

他考试没及格表明他学习还不够努力。

②suggest表示“建议、提议”时,后接名词、代词、-ing形式或that从句(从句谓语用“should+动词原形”,should可以省略)。

e.g. I suggest we go shopping together and look for a nice tank.我建议我们一起去商店买一个精致的鱼缸。

I suggested that he(should)leave early.我建议他早点动身。

(2) obtain 取得某物,经(买、借、拿等)获得

e.g. There are people who gamble or cheat to obtain money. Those people try to get money by dishonest means. 有一些通过欺骗和赌博获得钱的人,他们总想通过不诚实的手段来得到钱。

I obtained this record for you with difficulty. 我好不容易为你弄到了这张唱片。

(2) demonstrate

① demonstrate在本句中指“表明,表示(show)”.

e.g. His sudden departure demonstrates that he is unreliable. 他的突然离去表明他的不可靠。

② demonstrate 在高二教材中出现时,表示“示威集会或游行 ”。

可构成词组,demonstrate (against/in favor of sb /sth) 示威游行反对或赞成某人或某事。

它的名词形式有demonstrator游行者,示威者,demonstration 示威或游行。

e.g. Thousands demonstrated against the price increases. 数以千计的人举行示威,抗议物价上涨。

The police arrested more than 100 demonstrators. 警察逮捕了100多名示威游行者。

2. Although experts have many ideas and categories of learning, it is evident that people learn in three basic styles: learning through seeing, learning through listening and learning through doing. 尽管专家对学习有很多的想法和分类,但显然,人们通过三种基本的方式来学习:视觉型学习,听觉型学习和动觉型学习。

(1) It is evident that …主语从句。相当于 “It is clear/obvious that …”.详见Language Study 的第3句解析。

(2) evident 形容词,表示“明显的,清楚的(obvious, clear)”。

e.g. He looked at his children with evident pride. 他以明显的得意态度望着他的孩子。

The applause made it evident the play was a hit. 掌声表明这个戏剧很成功。

3. Learning through doing means being active in exploring the environment and finding out about things by moving and touching. 在实践中学习意味着积极地探索环境,通过触摸去了解事物。

(1) 此句中注意…by doing sth 这个结构,用来表示通过某种方式或手段。本文中

出现的还有:

e.g. Students who find it easiest to learn a new concept by hearing a teacher explain it are learning through listening. 有一些学生,他们发现学会一个新概念的最简单的方法是听老师解释,这些学生是通过听来学的。

4. Students who have this learning style take a hands-on approach to education and enjoy doing experiments or surveys. 有这种学习风格的学生,他们会采取亲身实践的学习方法,而且喜欢做实验或调查。

(1) hands-on 作定语,意为“亲生实践的,实际的”。

e.g. Bush met the two leaders in a June 4 summit in Jordan showcasing his decision to take a more hands-on approach to Middle East peacemaking r.

六月四日,布什在约旦会见两国领导人,表明他决定采取更实际行动来推进中东和平进程。

5. They select a variety of activities to suit their students’ different learning styles.

他们挑选各种各样的活动,以适合学生不同的学习风格。

(1) select 与choose 的辨析

choose 表示“选择”或“挑选”的意思,是一个中性词,表示范围较小。

  e.g. I'll let you choose how you are going to die.我将让你选择你怎样去死。

    I've chosen them because of the colours. 我选择它们,是因为它们的颜色。

  choose 有时表示“推选”、“选举”的意思。

  e.g. They chose him monitor of the class.他们选他作为班长。

   Last year Mr Wang was chosen to attend a conference of advanced teachers.

   去年汪先生被推选出席了先进教师会议。

   select 表示“精心挑选”、“选定”的意思,一般有主要的目的性。

   e.g. He looked through the suits and selected a cheapest one for the party.

   他在那些衣服里找了一阵,最后为晚会挑了一件最便宜的。

   Why didn't you select a better subject for your composition?你干吗不选一个更好的作文题目呢?

(2) suit

① suit本句中表示“适合,适应(satisfy, meet the needs of, be convenient)”。

e.g. He said he knew of a hotel that might suit them. 他说他知道一个可能适合他们的旅馆。

Let’s fix a day. Would Saturday night suit you? 我们定个日子吧,周六晚方便吗?

② be suitable for/to “适合,合适”。在后面的writing中有一个句子。

e.g. What aspects of your study habits are not suitable to your learning style and why.

你的学习习惯的哪些方面是不适合你的学习风格的,为什么。

When we design buildings, we should keep in mind that there should be apartments that are suitable for disabled persons. (SEFC B2B U17)

当我们设计大楼的时候,我们要记住:应该设计一些适合残疾人居住的公寓。

sit for参加(考试)

concentrate on 集中;专心;专注

to begin with首先;第一;起初

drop out (of)(从活动、竞赛等中)退出;辍学

1. 脱离

Luckily, I dropped out before the deal turned sour.很幸运的,在交易变坏前我已退出了。

One of my teeth has dropped out.我的一只牙齿掉了。

2. 退出;退学 She dropped out of school to become a waitress.她退学去当女招待。

result in产生某种作用或结果

Their dispute resulted in war.他们的争端导致了战争。

result from 起因于

His illness resulted from bad food. 他的病是由于吃了变质的食物所致。

be skeptical of/about怀疑

Many were skeptical about this solution.许多人对这一解决办法表示怀疑。

take in把(某人)带进;领入

The club took in a new member last week.俱乐部上星期又吸收了一名新会员。

2. 改小;改短

The dress needs to be taken in a bit.这衣服需要稍微改小一点。

rely on依赖;依靠

You can't rely on the weather.这天气可靠不住。

You may rely on me to help you.你可以信赖我会帮助你的。

as far as(远)至(某处);到……程度

They walked as far as the lake.他们一直走到湖边。

2. 尽...;就...I'll help you as far as I can.我将尽我所能帮助你。

lifelong learning 终身学习

work out解决;计算出;详细拟订

1). 想出; 制订出; 产生出work out a program制订计划

2). 解决; 确定

Can you work out on the map where we are now?你能在地图上找到我们现在所在的位置吗?

3). 使精疲力尽;耗尽 He never seems to be worked out.他好像永远都不知道疲倦似的。

4). 计算; (被) 算出5). 理解, 弄懂; 知道6). (使) 松脱, (使)脱出

7). 被证明有效 (或切实可行、合适)8). 产生结果; 发展; 成功

9). 锻炼, 训练10). 在工作中度过(时间)11). 在外当雇工

have a lot in common有很多共同之处

be suited for适合做……,对……适宜

SPEAKING

1.be used for 被用于… be used as 被用作…

2. It depends. 要看情况而定。

LIFE ON THE GO

3. live life on the go 过着忙碌的生活

4. on the go 忙忙碌碌的; 四处奔走

5. make it possible for sb to do sth 使得某人做某事成为可能

6. throughout the world 遍及世界

7. more than 不仅, 多于;

no more than 仅仅; 只不过

not more than 少于, 不足

8. add to 增添;增加 add…to… 给…增加…

add up 加起来 add up to 加起来总共是

9. remind sb of/about sth 提醒某人某事

remind sb to do sth 提醒某人做某事

remind sb of doing sth 提醒某人已做过某事

remind that...

10.have an appointment with sb. 和…有预约

keep /break one's appointment 守约/违约

make an appointment with sb. 和…约定

by appointment 按约定

11. obey /break the rules 遵守/违反规定

12. agree (not) to do sth

agree that sb can/will do sth

agree with; agree to; agree on

13. dare not do=don't dare to do 不敢作…(同need)

14. take sth/sb away from… 把….从….带/拿走

14. stay/keep in touch with sb.; /keep track of

be in touch with 与…保持联系

get in touch with 与…取得联系

lose touch with 与…失去联系

be out of touch with

15. call for help 求救

16. in case (of an emergency) 万一; 以免

in case +从句 万一

17. do whatever he wants to do 想干什么就干什么

whatever 和 no matter what 区分

LANGUAGE STUDY

18. according to 根据

19. the negative/positive effect of ….的负面/正面影响

INTEGRATING SKILLS

20. take over 接管

21. (in) the way that/in which… …的方法

The few surviving human beings are being used (in) the way (that) we use machines today.

22. break down 出故障

23. dream of/ about 梦见;梦想

24. fail to do sth; fail in doing sth 没能做到…

succeed in doing sth 成功的做某事

be successful in doing sth

25. force sb to do sth 强迫某人做某事 oblige sb to do sth

by force 靠武力

26. come up with 想到; 提出

27. take steps /measures/action to do sth 采取措施

28. look up the words in the dictionary 在字典上查单词

29. go for a job interview 去面试找工作

30. unite as one 团结一致

31. hand in one's homework 交作业

32. suffer a serious defeat 遭惨败

FUTURE TRAVEL:TELEPORTATION

33. be based on 以…为基础

34. take …apart 把…分解=separate

put…together

35. on the way 在路上 on one’s way to 在去...的路上

in the way 妨碍;挡道 in a way 在某种程度上

by the way 顺便问一下 (in)this/that way 这样

in the same way 用同样的方法

in different ways 用不同的方法

in no way 决不;一点也不

the way to do/of doing sth 做...的方法

the way (that/in which)定语从句

make one’s way to 朝...走去

all the way 一路上;从头至尾

by way of 经由;通过...的方法

way of life 生活方式

36. so far 到目前为止

37. We are still a long way from being able to do sth.

=It will take us a long time to be able to do sth.

38. It is possible (for sb) to do sth

It is likely/possible/probable that...

Sb is likely to do sth.

39. The more we know, the more we can imagine.

越..., 就越....

The more you listen to English, the easier it will become.

The longer you live in this place, the less you will like it.

WARMING UP & LISTENING & SPEAKING

1.no longer; no more

1. There be… left 有…剩下

2. hunt animals for food 为得到…而捕猎…

hunt for 搜寻

hunt animals 狩猎

3. know of/about 对…了解

4. in danger 处于危险中 out of danger 脱离危险

in danger of 面临...的危险

endanger vt. 使...濒危;危害

endangered animals 濒危动物 become endangered

5. die out 灭绝; 消失

die away ; die off; die of; die from; die down

be dying for 渴望;很想

6. It follows that… 由此得出…; 可见…

People get sick because of air pollution. It follows that we must do something about it.

人们生病是因为空气污染。可见我们必须采取行动了。

7. lead to 导致

8. take turns to do sth/ doing sth 轮流做某事

do sth in turn/by turns

9. act as 扮演 play a role of

ARE WE ENDANGERED?

10. an environmental expert 一位环境专家

11. keep/stop/prevent sb from doing sth 阻止…做…

keep sb doing sth 使...一直做...

keep (on) doing sth 坚持做某事

protect...from/against 保护...免受...

12. we don't do as we say. 我们言行不一。

13. ( take sb ) on a tour of... (带某人)游览...

14. have a bright future 用有一个灿烂的未来

15. harm sb/ do harm to sb/ do sb harm/ be harmful to sb

伤害某人;对...有害=be bad for

do good to sb/do sb good/ be good for/

benefit of benefit to 对...有好处/益

16. take measures/steps/action 采取措施

17. be used to sth/ doing sth 习惯于…

18. adapt to (改变以)适应 adapt oneself to 使自己适应于

adjust to (调整以)适应

19. become endangered 频临危险

20. the original species 原有的物种 species (单复数相同)

21. first of all 首先 at first; above all

22. make a big difference 大改观;影响大

23.If we know more about what causes endangerment, we may be able to take measures before it is too late. 如果我们能更多地了解致使生物濒危的原因,就能及时采取补救措施。

They are thinking of buying the house before the prices go up. 他们正在考虑趁房价未涨时把房子买下来。

If you don’t like the present job, I suggest you look for another one before it is too late.

如果你不喜欢目前的工作,我建议你趁早另谋出路。

He hung up before I could say a word.

我还没说一句话,他就挂了电话。

LANGUAGE STUDY

24. devote oneself to sth/doing sth 致力于…

be devoted to sth/doing sth 投身于

a devoted friend / wife

25. at present 目前 at the present time

be present at 出席

26. explain sth to sb 向某人解释…=explain to sb sth

27. set…free 释放=free

28. in the wild 处于野生状态

INTEGRATING SKILLS

29.be careful with 细心;认真

be careful of/about 注意;留意

30. throw away 扔掉;throw about 四处乱扔

31. care about 关心 care for 喜欢;

workbook

32. go on a tour to 去…观光/游览

33. a large amount of (money) 许多(钱)

34. (translate) word for word 逐字地

answer point for point 逐点答复

对比:one by one; little by little

35. up to (1)正在做;从事于(2)大约; 多达

(3)理应;视为...的职责

What’s he up to? 他在干什么? (常用作贬义)

I guess the fellow is up to no good.

我猜这个家伙要图谋不轨。

The little boy can count up to twenty.

这小孩能从一数到二十。

The students are allowed up to two hours to finish the test. 学生们有长达两小时的时间来完成试题。

It’s up to you to decide what to do next.

由你来决定我们下一步做什么。

The success of this project is up to us.

这个项目的成败取决于我们.

36. become extinct=die out

37. keep…as a pet 把…当宠物养

38.common adj. 常见的; 共同的; 普遍的(侧重指共性;强调“非特殊性,非优秀性” 或 "不足为奇的"

usual adj 通常的;寻常的;惯常的 (多指”习惯性的,遵循常规的,一贯如此的" 强调时间角度。

ordinary 通常的;普通的, 也指普遍的,但不是因为大家所共有而普遍常见, 而是因为符合事物的正常法则及一般规律而十分普遍; 也可带贬义,指低于一般标准的事物或人。

popular 普及的;通俗的, 指为广大群众所接受或深受喜爱的

general 一般的;普通的; 指属于大部分人或大部分事物的属性, 因此是一般的,普通的,可能也包括了一些极少数的例外。

WARMING UP & SPEAKING

1. a piece of music 一支曲子

2. Can you help me to decide what to buy?

3. What do you have in mind? 你有什么主意?

4. dance to (a song/music) 伴着(歌曲/音乐)跳舞

5. What can/do you suggest?

suggest sth

suggest (sb) doing sth

suggest that...

suggest +虚拟语气 (建议) insist +虚拟 (坚决要求)

suggest + 陈述语气 (表示) insist +陈述 (坚决认为)

6. Have you considered doing...? 你考虑过...吗?

consider...(as/to be)... 认为...是...

consider sb to have done sth 认为...做过某事

THE SOUND OF THE WORLD

5. a musical instrument 乐器

6. musical styles 音乐风格

in style 流行的 out of style 过时的

7. have much/nothing in common with

和…有许多/没有相同之处

8. along with 和…一起

9. a variety of 各种各样的 varieties of=various

LANGUAGE STUDY

10. pick out 挑出 choose; select

pick up; pick on; pick

11. The style is the man. 文如其人

12. the key to the classroom 教室的钥匙

the answer to the question 问题的答案

the solution to the problem 问题的解决办法

the entrance to the station 车站的入口

13. give/put on a performance 表演/上演节目

14. golden pen 金笔 gold necklace 金项链

15. a two-room house 一个两室的房子

a four-storey building=a building of four storeys/stories

16. make a record 录制唱片 set a record 创纪录

record a song 录一首歌

17. turn into 变成; 译成 turn...into; turn to

POP VERSUS ROCK

18. become more and more similar 变得越来越相似

19. make music one's career 把音乐当事业

20. on the other hand 另一方面

20. satisfy sb. 使得某人满意

be satisfied with 对…感到满意

be pleased with; be content with

satisfactory=satisfying; satisfaction

21. satisfy one’s inner desire 满足某人的内心欲望

21. make people feel easy 让人们感觉轻松/悠闲

22. forget about 忘记了

AMERICAN COUNTRY MUSIC

23. have a hit 风靡一时

24. over the past twenty years 经过了过去的20年

25.be common for 对...很普通的

25. think…to be…. 认为…是

26. turn to 转向; 求助于;翻到

turn writer 成为作家 turn 20 过了20岁

27. think well of (be well thought of)

=think highly of=speak highly of

=sing high praise for 对…评价很高

28. make fun of 取笑; 拿某人取乐

29. bring in 带来(收入); 引进(技术)

30. on their travels 在旅行时

31, in the open air 在户外

31. for free 免费

a free meal

He is free with his money.

All these books are given away (for) free/free of charge.

The old woman has never been free from pain.

You are free to do anything you like, within the law.

Step 1 Lead-in

What do you about him?

He is a volunteer-a person who donates his time to help others. After he graduated from university, he decided not to apply for a job straight away. Instead he taught in remote areas to help children there receive good education. And education is essential to poverty relief, so his work is making a big difference to the children’s future.

Step 2 Scanning: Read the passage quickly and choose the best answers

1.Volunteers refer to ________ . D

A. people who are willing to help others

B. people who devote their time to helping others

C. people who donate their time to help others

D. all of the above

2. Volunteers do voluntary work in order to _______ . B

A. make money

B. make a contribution to society

C. kill time

D. become healthy

3. ______ volunteers are mentioned in the text C

A. one B. Two C. Three D. Four

4. Text One mainly tells us ________ . C

A. voluntary work is interesting

B. voluntary work is demanding

C. voluntary work can make a difference not only to the helped people but also to the volunteers themselves whatever kind it is

D. how to do voluntary work

5. From Text One we can infer that voluntary work is worth doing for ______ . D

A. only young people B. healthy people

C. people with knowledge D. almost all people

Step 3 Careful reading

volunteers

Lu Hao Lin Ying Meng Yu

What activity “1 helps 1” scheme of the Youth volunteer Community Development Project Go West Project organized by the Communist Youth League of China An event organized by Meng Yu and her classmates

When Every Tuesday and Friday After graduation During weekends

Where In the old man’s house In a remote rural school of southwest China In Canada

What to do Shopping, house work, read, drink, chat teach Went without food or 30 hours

Whom to help An lonely old man Some poor kids Starving children

Benefits to others Mr zhao doesn’t feel lonely any more; his health has been improved; he feels more energetic and optimistic. These kids become eager to learn; the pass rate has greatly improved; the children will get rid of the poverty and has a bright future. Make the children get rid of starvation and lice a better life.

Step 4 Read the passage once again and get the main idea of the passage and understand the writing purpose.

Main idea: The text relates the three students’ experiences as volunteers. It shows that “… each contribution--- no matter how small can make a difference.” And it also shows that voluntary work benefits not only the people helped but also volunteers. It encourages us students to volunteer to make a contribution to the society.

Writing Purpose: By retelling the three students’ experiences as volunteers, the writer tries to make us learn about some voluntary work and realize that voluntary work benefits not only society but also volunteers. He calls on and encourages us students to take part in voluntary work so as to improve ourselves, get the job we dream and make the world more beautiful and harmonious.

Step 5 List all the benefits mentioned in the text and add more .

Benefits to volunteer

improved history grades

acquiring valuable skills and experience for future career

more opportunities for jobs and high education

build confidence self-awareness

good communication skills maturity

leadership ability make friends

more positive motivation to succeed

Benefits to people helped

improved health

more energetic

more optimistic

national exam pass rates improved poverty relief

improved future prospects

money to buy food

Step 6 Discussion

1.Would you like to be a volunteer?

2.What kind of voluntary work do you like to do?

3.What benefits does it bring to you and the people who are helped?

Integrating Reading Skills

Step 1 Scan the passage and find out what happened in the years:

In 1870s: A shopkeeper in San Francisco succeeded in selling denim work trousers.

In 1930s: Many young American men bought jeans and dressed like their cowboy film stars.

In World War Two: American jeans were introduced by the soldiers to the world.

After the war: American teenagers started to make denim jeans their own unique item of fashion.

In 1950s: The school ban on students wearing jeans make jeans even more popular.

Between 1950s and 1990s: The jeans have been through many different changes in style.

In 1990s: Jeans were made more stretch and even tighter over the bottom and legs.

More Recently: Wearing jeans that looked very old became popular.

Step 2 Choose the best answer

1. The idea of blue trousers called jeans came from_______ . A

A. Europe B. America C. Asia D. Africa

2. People began to buy jeans for fashion beside for work _______ . C

A. in the 1900s B. in 1930 C. in the 1930s D. in the 1920s

3. ______ introduced jeans to the world. B

A. America government B. America soldiers

C. America cowboys D. America workers

4. From Text Two we can infer _______ . C

A. jeans will be less popular

B. jeans will disappear

C. jeans will still be popular

D. jeans will be out of fashion

Step 3 Read and answer the following questions

1.Where do jeans come from?

The idea of blue trousers called jeans came from Europe,but the jeans today are very much an American invention.

2.How were they invented?

They were created by a shopkeeper in San Francisco.His shop sold denim work trousers to men employed in heavy labour.

3.Why did people in the past like to wear jeans? Is this still true today?

Because they were cheap and strong. They were also comfortable

4. What is the symbol of denim jeans?

Denim has become a symbol of the young,active,inform way of life.

Step 4 Discussion

Read the last paragraph and tell us what’s about?

It’s a survey report on jeans and fashion in the UK.

Step 5 language points

1.acknowledge vt ( admit ; express thanks for)

acknowledge +n do you acknowledge defeat?

acknowledge+doing The opponents ackonwledged having been defeated.

. acknowledge+that The opponents ackonwledged that they were defeated.

2. company n. being together with another or others I enjoy his company.

3. fit in be in harmony with

You can’t bring outsides into a place like this , they won’t fit in.

You should fit in with other employees

4.Make a / one’s contribution to / towards + n /doing

It is our duty to make a contribution to protecting the environment.

be used to be equal to devote oneself to get down to lead to

look forward to pay attention to stick to see to

5. apply v ( make a formal request) ( fit be suitable /useful)

I was admitted to a key university to which few dared to apply.

6.straight away /off : without hesitation /delay

I can’t tell you straight away.

温州市第三中学 石丹

内容提要: 本文以《初级中学课程标准》为指导,围绕如何实施新课程理念,进行初中英语《新目标》教学实践,提出了实现三个转变、二个拓宽、两个创造和两个提高等改进初中英语任务型课堂教学效益的教学策略。

关键词:新课标;任务型教学;三个转变;二个拓宽 ;二个创造;二个提高

新修订的《全日制义务教育英语课程标准解读》中明确指出,中学英语教学要积极倡导任务型教学途径,要让学生在教师的指导下,通过直观感知、亲身体验、自主实践、积极参与和小组合作等方式,进行自主的语言学习,并且主动地运用所用所学语言去做事情,在做事情的过程中自然地运用所学语言,在使用所学语言做事情的过程中发展语言的能力。

任务型语言教学是交际语言教学理论在20世纪80年代发展起来的一种新兴的教学途径。它是在我国实施新课程标准后引人的一种新型的英语教学方法。它以完成具体任务的欲望为动力,以用语言做事为完成任务的过程,以展示任务成果来体现教学的成效。在实施任务型教学法的过程中教师必须转变教学观念、改变教学模式,在英语课堂要创造宽松的教学氛围。

以学生能做某事的描述方式设定各级目标要求;它是要以学生为主,教师引导为辅。因此,我们在设计教学活动中,要让学生通过一系列的自主活动而完成学习任务。当然,在任务型教学的具体实施过程中,肯定会遇到各种各样的具体问题。随着外语教学实践和教学改革的不断深入,这些问题会逐一得到解决。下面,笔者主要阐述新课程标准下实施任务型教学过程中,我们英语教师应采取的具体实施策略。

一、实现三个转变

1.教师角色的转变

传统的外语教学中,教师的角色单一,主要担任着“主讲”和“指挥”的角色,具有很大的权威性。教学活动形式单一,主要是“精讲多练”。外语教师关注的仅仅是语言知识的传授和学生成绩的好坏,很少关心学生在学习过程中的情感投入、思维能力的发展、个性发挥和自主能力的培养。教师与学生之间是很严肃的师生关系,很少进行合作性的学习。但在任务型活动中,教师的角色比较丰富。教师充当者活动的组织者、参与者、指导者,还充当学生的“活字典”、“资料库”,是一种媒介、桥梁,是学生活动的伙伴。在教学活动中教给学生学习的方法和技巧;积极热情地参加学生的活动;同时组织和控制好课堂;给学生充分的实践机会和时间,这样学生才有充分表现和自我发展的空间,才会真正成为学习的主人。

2.思想观念的转变

在提倡素质教育、创新教育的今天,培养适应时代要求的创新人才就是素质教育的最终目的。新课标的目的之一就是通过开展任务型教学发展学生的自主学习能力和合作学习能力,从而培养学生的创新意识,为学生的终身学习、终身发展奠定良好的基础。因此,新课程改革是一场教育理念革命,要求教师“为素质而教”。在教学过程中应摆正“教师为主导、学生为主体”的正确关系,树立“为人的可持续发展而教”的教育观念,完成从传统的知识传播者到学生发展的促进者这一角色转变。在“学生发展为本”的全新观念下,教师的职责不再是单一的而应是综合的。作为课堂学习的指导者、组织者以及学生在探究性课堂上的合作者,教师应关注每一个学生的个性发展,引导学生积极参与教学过程,让其获得情感体验、知识积累以及自我探究的内在需求、重视创新精神与实践能力培养。总之,当前英语教师必须转变观念,利用任务型教学方式帮助学生形成发展探究知识的能力、获取信息的能力和自主学习的能力。

3.转变教学模式

要实现课程改革的预期目标,关键在于教学模式的转变。现行教学模式必须从教师本位向学生本位转变。从独白式教学向对话式教学转变,从封闭式向开放式转变,从传递接受式教学向以引导式探究为主要特征的多样化教学转变。英语教师在英语教学实践中也不断改革创新,形成了以任务教学为主要特色的教学模式,即教师按照自己的教学理念并根据具体需要设计或选择任务与活动,每一个任务就是一个需要解决的问题,这样,学习者就知道自己的具体目标和要求什么,就会去主动探究解决问题的方法和途径,从而实现发现式学习。在教材处理方面,许多教师大胆创新,不拘泥于教材。如在教“职业”这个话题时,设计下面任务活动。1、小组活动,学生询问同伴及其家人的职业及其工作地点。2、全班活动,各组选一名学生介绍同伴及其家人的职业及工作地点,3、统计班中学生家人所从事的工作种类。这样不仅激发了学生的学习兴趣,也挖掘了学生的学习潜能。任务型教学可以使课堂教学活动化、交际化,还要求学生学会合作学习。在这个过程中,学生互相配合,互相帮助,交往能力、表达能力、责任意识、领导才能等都会得到培养。

二、实现二个拓宽

1.拓宽自身知识宽度

要知道教育创新的实现依赖于实施创新计划的主体-教师,以往的教学形式始终以“师

者,传道,授业,解惑”为传统;教学过程固守于教师“照本宣科”,学生则依样画葫芦。很多教师把自己禁锢在自己所教的教科书和练习册里,很少涉猎其他方面的知识。除了自己所教的课本、所做的练习外,别的东西几乎什么都不懂,更谈不上有自己的业余爱好。而新课程改革倡导的任务型的教学,需要教师有广博的知识和许多的爱好。每一科知识、每一个爱好都是师生沟通的桥梁,都会对任务的完成起到积极的作用。因此,教师知识更新,迫在眉睫,对于教师来说,任何人都不可能局限于个人在学校所学的知识,因此,应该培养起终身学习的意识和能力。只有这样,才能使教师在“高度” (站在时代的高度)、“长度”(义务专长)、“宽度”(兼收并蓄,拓宽知识面)、“深度”(精神的教育理论)方面构筑起立体化的知识,真正肩负起培养跨世纪人才的重担。

2.拓宽教学资源渠道

新课标明确指出:教学要以人的发展为主,体现素质教育的思想,倡导任务型的教学模式和合作互动的学习方式,同时,注意培养学生积极的情感因素和有效的学习策略,开发利用多种教学资源。众所周知,传统的教学中,学生在课堂上学到的知识主要来源于教科书和教师用书。教师们一直认为,教科书和教师用书是教师备课、讲课的根据,谁都不敢跨越雷池一步。21世纪知识将以前所未有的速度增长和淘汰、人类社会现有的知识很快就将被更新。教材、教科书并不是知识的唯一源泉。教师要跳出教材、教科书的小圈子。教师必须创造性的使用教材,总之,教师要改变过于注重教科书、机械训练的倾向。教师应充分利用各种听觉和视觉手段,例如:挂图、音像等,丰富教学内容和形式,促进学生的个性化学习;尽量开发和利用学校的广播电视和网络等资源,开发英语教学资源,拓展学生学习渠道,改进学生的学习方式,提高学生的学习效率,为学生创造各种各样自主学习的条件。

三、实现两个创造

1. 创造宽松教学氛围

目前,我们师生间的主从型师生关系在客观上阻碍了师生之间的情感交流,主观上也造成了师生感情的不融洽,不仅直接降低了教学效果,而且也直接导致学生学习的被动性,完全不利于学生的创新意识、创新精神、创新能力的培养。显然,对开展任务型教学起着严重的阻碍作用。在任务型教学实施的过程中,教学过程不再是教师把已有的知识机械地传递给学生的过程。所以,首先必须改变师生之间这种主从型关系,教师要改变自己的角色,在师生之间逐步营造一种民主、平等和谐的关系。创设宽松、民主的教学氛围。教师要学会尊重、宽容、爱护学生,教师要善待每一位学生,不管是课内还是课外,都要尽量寻求与学生对话的机会,让学生感觉到自己在这个环境中是宽松的,师生之间是平等的,交流是愉悦的。要不断地给学生树立一个个荣誉,让学生维护现有的荣誉,为追求更高的荣誉而自强不息。学生在奋斗中找到自尊,就会产生出自信的情感。教师宽容了学生,就意味着破除了师道尊严,就能营造出民主、平等、宽松、自由的教学氛围。只有创造出这样宽松的教学氛围才能最大限度地调动学生的学习积极性,激发学生的学习热情,从而促进任务型教学的顺利开展。

2.创造真实语言环境

任务型教学的原则之一就是力求任务的真实性。这一原则要求教师在设计任务时要提供给学生明确、真实的语言信息,语言情景和语言形式要符号语言实际功能和语言规律,要使学生在一种自然、真实或模拟真实的情景中体会和学习语言,从而掌握语言的应用。因此教师在设计任务活动时应充分把握教材、创设密切联系学生生活、学习经历和社会实际的语言情景,只有这样,才能激发学生参与活动的动机,使学生感到学习就是生活,生活就是学习。实践证明,学生在课堂上完成的真实的交际任务越多,学生使用现实生活语言的机会也就越多,运用语言交际的能力也就越强。当然,构成任务的材料可以是多种多样的,如可结合某些节日设计相应的表演节目、制作贺卡、装饰教室、举行英语party等任务;结合当地的某些大型活动如为某个外商投资洽谈会招聘英语志愿小分队的任务;结合学生运动会或2008年北京奥运会调查学生的体育爱好项目等任务。这些任务都是与现实生活紧密联系的,具有一定的学习和教育意义。

四、实现两个提高

1. 提高自身义务素质

新课标强调:“教师要不断提高专业化水平,与新课程同步发展。”知识经济的迅速发展,任务型教学的落实需要教师终身学习、与时俱进。由于如今知识更新速度加快,知识的陈旧率也越来越快,知识更新刻不容缓。在这种情况下,教师原有专业知识和学历层次已显得促襟见肘,不能适应形势的需要。所以教师应在任务型教学实施过程中,随着时代改变自己的教育教学,努力提高自己的专业化水平。否则就要被时代所淘汰。在信息时代,以网络技术为基础的国际户联网逐步渗透到现代社会的方方面面,对教师的要求也越来越高。在信息社会,适应这一要求,就需要教师具备相应的信息素养,教师不仅要掌握现代化的教育技术,还应该具备在哪里能够获得信息和如何获取信息的能力。只有这样,在任务型教学实施过程中,教师设计任务时才有很大空间。所以教师必须具备与时俱进的创新精神,不断提高自身义务素质,教师要天天学习,时时学习,要具有宽厚而综合的知识和素质,只有知识越丰富,思维就越灵活,联想也就越广泛,教育教学的方法和点子也越多。当代科学的发展越来越呈现出综合化的趋势,各学科的相互联系、相互渗透,也要求教师必须具有广博的文化知识,才能满足学生的要求。做学习型的教师,不断充“电”。在教中学,在学中教,做学习型的教师。

2. 提高教育科研能力

在任务型教学实施过程中,教师应该具备科研意识和科研能力。在中学教师的职业生涯中,传统的教学活动和研究活动是彼此分离的。教师的任务是教学,研究被认为是专家们的“专利”。而忽视了教师工作创造性的特点。当前,变“教师匠”为科研型教师,已经越来越成为教育工作者的共识,教育科研也被许多学校视为提高教育教学质量的生命线。为此,教师应该具备相应的科研意识和科研能力。只有从纷繁复杂的日常工作中跳出来,用科研的眼光重新审视,才能对教育教学工作有一个全新的认识;只有具备科研意识才能不断地从日复一日的工作中发现问题,并追索问题的原因;只有具备相应的科研能力,才能针对所发现问题,找到解决问题的办法,并不断地改进自己的工作,提高教育教学工作的水平和质量。因此,具备科研意识和科研能力,是实现由“工匠型”教师向“科研型”教师、“专家型”教师转变的很重要条件,是教师持续进步的基础,是提高教学水平的关键,是创造性实施新课堂的保证。

总之,任务型教学模式是初中语言教学的有效途径,同时它又是一种新型的教学方式,它给初中英语课堂带来了更多的活力的同时,也对教师的素质,专业水平和创新精神提出了更高的要求;需要我们每一位英语教师在实践中不断探索、不断反思、更新教育观念,使任务型教学能够在提高学生的英语实际应用能力上发挥最大的作用。一年多的新课程教学实践使我深刻体会到:

路漫漫其修远兮,吾将上下而求索!

吴中区城西中学 丁春兰

随着义务教育英语教材试用的不断深入,听说技能的训练在英语各阶段的教学中日益受到重视。当然,这也是英语教材改革的重要目标之一,是对我们传统英语教学模式的一种挑战。重视听说技能的提高固然重要,可问题是,许多地方出现了矫枉过正的现象,忽视了语言学习中的另一能力--写作能力的培养。根据笔者的经历和调查,目前初中学生英语写作能力总体来说还比较薄弱,究其原因:一是学生写作练习的时间少;二是不少教师抱有依赖和侥幸心理,误以为写作训练到初三时突击一下就可以了;三是缺乏对学生进行系统的写作知识的指导(比如,如何用词、造句、组段等)。这些原因造成了学生从最初不会写、盲目写到不愿写、惧怕写,直至最后拒绝写的恶性循环。写作是一个由浅入深、由易到难、由简到繁的训练过程,任何一个环节出问题都会影响对学生写作能力的培养。只要教师平时对学生的写作训练给予高度的重视,并帮助学生形成有效的写作策略,学生的写作能力定会得到有效的培养和提高。

一、高度重视,树立信心,培养写作兴趣

写是口头交际的书面再现。在很多情况下,写的功能是非口头所能替代的,而培养学生的写作能力也是初中英语教学大纲中的一项重要内容。如果说提高听说能力是为了克服“聋哑英语”,那么,提高读写能力则是为了克服“文盲英语”。写作是目的性很强的社会行为,如果学生将来连e-mail都不会写,或连个人简历都不会填,又怎能适应未来社会的竞争与挑战?教师在教学过程中应努力使学生高度重视英语写作,引导学生树立提高英语写作能力的信心。初一经常进行简易而有趣的看图写话,让学生感到学英语的乐趣;初二开始可根据教学进程及相关单元课文内容,以不同形式编写短文,让学生写他们感兴趣、有意义的人和事。并逐渐养成每周一篇的写作习惯。如教学了JEFC Book2 Unit15 What do people eat? 可布置学生写关于中国食品的内容(Chinese Food),可提供短文的开头或一些重要词。学生定会在平时的锻炼中不断提高写作技巧,不断提高写作兴趣。

二、开展综合型教学,全方位提高写作能力。

英语写作能够比较客观地反映学生多方面的语言运用能力,诸如语言表达能力和思维组织能力等。针对目前我国学生英语写作中普遍存在的惧怕写作、汉语式作文现象、语法错误多等问题,笔者认为,在平时应当开展综合型教学,将写作与语言基本技能(听、说、读)的训练相结合,从不同层面和不同角度来解决学生英语写作中的诸多问题,全方面提高学生的写作能力。

1.听与写相结合

如果教师将听力理解与写作技能结合起来,即把写作限制在特定的情景中,可使写作练习成为综合型的交际性语言练习。听与写相结合的练习形式有:在听的基础上设计听写填空、正误判断并纠错、选择、听后笔述句子、根据所听内容概要写作、模仿写作等。听与写相结合的好处是:(1)、能在听写填空中暴露出学生拼写及语法问题。(2)、既可培养学生听音会意的能力,又可培养其谴词造句的能力。(3)、概要写作和模仿写作不仅能评估学生的写作能力,检查其对输入信息的理解,还能检验其能否写出符合英语表达习惯,特定情景和文体要求的短文。

2.说与写相结合

布里顿(Britton,1970)指出:“学生口语句型结构和表达方式往往是他们学习写作的基础。”教师应当在教授写作的同时,帮助学生提高和丰富其口头表达的技能,因为口头形式往往包含了大量近似书面语的结构和措辞。说与写相结合的策略和具体做法是:

(1)通过师生间的交谈、小组讨论等形式帮助学生确定写作框架,并丰富写作内容。例如,在教学了JEFC Book3 Unit15 A doctor for animals 要求学生写What do my parents do?这一与课文话题有关的作文题。写作前教师可采取以下步骤帮助学生挖掘题材:

1)、师生间的交谈

教师可提出诸如what. how. why. when 等形式的问题,促使学生思考,帮助其打开头脑中的材料库。如:

①What do your parents do?

②What do they think of their jobs?

③Why do they think so?

④How do they like their jobs?

2)、小组讨论

学生针对上述问题展开讨论。

3)、师生间的交谈

各小组口头表述讨论结果。教师以读者的身份同学生交谈,帮助学生进一步丰富读者需要得到的信息。

4)、然后确定写作框架,学生根据提纲和框架,进行合乎逻辑的扩展写作。

(2)运用各种口语实践方法,提高学生的语言输出能力。教师可准备一些与课文内容或与学生生活有关的问题让学生口头表达,或根据情景进行句型或词组操练,以提高其语言输出能力。例如教学了JEFC Book3 Unit4 Travel后,可提出以下问题 What do you think of travelling? Is it good or bad? What are the good points? What are the bad points? 学生们先小组讨论,然后以辩论、演讲等方式阐述观点。

3.读与写相结和

写的过程实际上是模拟读者阅读的过程;阅读也是模拟写作的行为。由于文化的差异,很多同学在写作过程中难免会受到母语的影响,出现一些“Chinglish”(中式英语),而且有些东西也把握不准。所以,老师可以精选各种文体的范文若干,让学生们背诵模仿,并分析他们的篇章布局和谴词造句,考试如遇类似的作文,便会如鱼得水,游刃有余。

三、 讲究方法,加强指导。

英语中有句话“Practice makes perfect.”(熟能生巧) 平时不惜挤出时间上写作课,只有不断的强化练习,并且教师对作文训练及批改要讲究方法,加强指导,才能达到预期的效果。以下是本人的几点建议,仅供参考。

1.平时注重错题库的积累。

每次批改学生作文时要详细做好记录,并对其进行归类,分析学生出错的原因,有针对性地及时进行讲评。对个别错误较多的同学,最好能做到面批。另外,学生作文的错题库一定要保存好,过一阶段可以从中抽出一部分,以短文或单句改错的形式体现出来,让学生去做做。这样就可以一举两得,一方面解决了短文改错选题难的问题,而且这些错误均切中学生要害,都是他们平时易犯的错误,而这又与中考命题的思路相吻合;另一方面可使学生加深印象,避免再犯类似的错误。

2.用多媒体教学,提高教学效果。

可以将错误较多的学生作文直接放到实物投影仪上或打印到幻灯片上,让学生集体批阅,当场发现并当场解决问题。这既直观有节省时间。另外,教师平时准备一些书面材料备在电脑中,同时附上参考答案以及相应的较详细的评分标准,可以利用课堂时间,将他们调出并投影到屏幕上,让学生进行即时作文,当场做,当场讲评,如时间允许也可以进行口头作文。

3.平时注重单词、词组及固定短语的积累。

单词、词组及固定短语是写作的基石,有些学生对单词的拼写不重视,结果写作文时就往往会有一种提笔忘字的感觉。写出的单词有很多不正确,也就谈不上选好短语,拿高分了。当然,平时在教学中对于一些固定短语和典型句型,一定要多操练,特别是一些重要且学生易错的。可以通过翻译句子、句子改错等多种形式反复训练。

4.防止非智力因素失分

 中考卷面的好坏对书面表达的得分有直接的影响,因为书面表达属主观试题,是人工阅卷。有些考生书写时不注意卷面整洁,乱涂乱改,字迹潦草,难于辨认;有些则书写基本功太差,行距过小,字母过大或过小;还有些则乱用标点符号,英文字母的书写很不规范,“r”与“v”,“o”与“u”和“t”,“l”与“e”等分不清。这些直接给阅卷老师留下不好的印象,得分自然要低于所写材料本身应得的分数。所以,平时老师应加以严格的训练,养成良好的书写习惯。

四、 激励为主,走出困境

教师应在平时的写作训练中充分运用激励机制,例如:书法规范及漂亮者优:标点符号正确者优:典型句使用恰当者优等。教师只有把评价学生的写作自始自终放在发现学生字、词、段、文方面的优秀之处和可取之处,学生才能从遭遇失败到尝试成功,从惧怕写到乐于并善于写,真正走出英语写作困境,进而全面提高自身的英语写作能力。

总之,在新中考形势下,我们应当适应素质教育的要求,不仅要加强对学生听、说、读等方面多种技能的强化和训练,而且要注重笔头的表达。它对推动初中英语教学改革,全面提高学生英语素质,更好地完成初、高中英语教学的衔接起到了很好的导向作用。高度重视对学生写作方面的训练,这样我们才能培养出适应时代发展的高素质的学生。

城西中学 丁春兰

教育是一门艺术,因为人是最神秘最复杂的动物。面对一群有思想有感情的学生,如何赢得他们的信任与尊重,如何对他们实施德育教育呢?前不久,在高二年段的研究性学习成果汇报会上,一份关于中学生心理状况的调查报告显示:当心理上存在问题时只有2.06%的同学愿意向老师倾诉;在对待老师批评这个问题上有近三成的同学认为老师是可恨的,有意挑自己的毛病。虽然这份调查存在一定的局限性,但联想到在许多学校部分师生之间公开对立,学生对老师出言不逊、甚至扬言报复(有的确实做了),这样的事情时有发生,让我们不得不重新审视师生关系这一古老而崭新的话题。我认为,要构建新型师生关系,转变教育观念,学会走到学生中去,尊重他们,理解他们。

第一、 构建新型师生关系是时代发展、教育改革的必然。

师生关系,是社会关系体系中一个多因素的关系体系,既反映了社会经济、政治、道德关系,又包含有为达到教育目标,完成教学任务的教与学的关系,也有情感行为的心理关系等。

 师生关系必然同一定的经济基础相联系并为之服务。在农业经济时代、工业经济时代的大部分时期教师处于“传道、授业、解惑”的主体,是主宰、是权威,学生只能被动地接受知识,师生关系必然体现着“师道尊严”。到了后工业经济时代,由于知识经济的到来,对个性发展的要求已日益强烈。教育途径的不断拓宽,教育管理和教育手段已逐步现代化、科学化,以教师为主体的活动舞台已逐渐被学生占领。因此,旧的师生关系势必遭受强烈的冲击甚至瓦解。师生关系是学校教育过程中最主要的一种关系,它通过教师和学生的直接交往而建立,对教育效果有着无可比拟的影响。情感则是这种关系的调节器。现行教育体制内,教育客体的广泛性和特殊性,教育对象(学生)本身所具有的丰富情感性均要求我们:为形成良好的师生人际关系,教师要真诚地关心、爱护学生,才能达到感情的融洽,促进教育成效。

第二、转变教育观念,变“师本位”为“生本位”。

有些班主任在工作中常出现“以情论人”的固执和“以人论事”的武断--明明是好学生干了坏事,老师却为之护短;明明是学习差的学生做了好事,老师却不信其有,或虽信其有而疑其动机。此类事情发生多了,既不利于班务工作的开展,又不利于全体同学的健康成长。要改变这种评价学生时消极的思维定势,班主任就必须了解学生的真实思想状况,必须转变教育观念。

转变教育观念,在这里主要是变“师本位”为“生本位”。传统的教育思想,总是将教师置于“本位”,教师是“ 传道”者,学生只能处于被动的“纳道”地位。结果,学生在长期的“现实处境”中,渐渐放弃了表现“个性”的愿望,一切以老师的是非观为标准;他们会有意无意地培养自己的“服从性”,甚至有少数人学会了曲意“逢迎”。当然也有人会通过各种形式来进行“抗拒”,但大多只能是“地下”的,无法触动“师本位”的权威地位。“师本位”教育的最大弊病在于:它使人类道德“前行”在学校教育这一最重要的领地遭到了强硬的“软性拦截”。试想,如果老师永远是对的,学生不可能超越老师,人类的道德还能完成一次又一次的超越吗?

由“师本位”转变到“生本位”,首先要认识到在教育的每个段位上,受教育者都具有强烈的自我意识,其中理所当然地包括自我评价意识。教育对象发展的主动性的强弱,者的复杂性还表现在随着时间和地点等的转移,同一个受教育者表露出的同一个情感信息未必等同。再次,要认识到教育者和受教育者双方的“实体要素”是变动不定的,绝对的静止不存在。就以观念之进步落后而论:教师原先可能是“先进”的代表者,但过不了多久,也许就成了“保守”的卫道士。

第三、走到学生中去,尊重学生,理解学生。

在传统的“师道尊严”理念的影响下,人们常常有这样的观点:学生就应该服从老师,被老师批评是理所当然的事。然而,这种观点在当今社会显然已不适用,学生,尤其是处于生长叛逆期的中学生,他们追求个性发展,个体意识明显加强,更追求人与人之间的一种平等交往。因此,我想,教师在与学生的交往过程中,尤其是当学生犯错误的时候,一定要有换位思考的意识,尊重学生,理解学生。

理解就是理解学生的思想实际、心理实际和生活实际。在开展班级德育工作,学生德育素质的提高,必须遵守一切从实际出发这一分析、处理问题的原则。尊重就是充分尊重学生的意见和要求、尊重学生的人格,平等待人,中学生的人格尤为重要。,

由于受遗传因素、家庭条件、社会环境等方面的影响,学生中存在着较大的差异。在平时的学校生活中,教师就要尊重每个学生,注意观察学生的个体差异,对每个学生都有全面的细致的了解。而要了解学生光靠观察还远远不够,在课余时间里要尽量多深入到学生中去,与他们一起交谈、游戏、活动,使他们与你无拘无束地相处,他们必然会对你敬而近之,由此而产生一种“爱屋及乌”的效应。要利用各种机会和学生沟通,沟通多了,就能了解学生的思想动态和行动表现,及时解决他们的思想困惑,纠正其不良行为。而事实证明,要想让学生接受老师的观点,批评说教的效果远及不上和学生谈话的效果明显。老师应首先把自己摆在和学生平等的位置上,和学生做朋友,从关爱的心态出发,动之以情,晓之以理,用人格力量去感化他们,要让学生真正的从心底感受到老师对他们的关心和爱护。“爱学生”是一切工作的根源,而“爱学生”则先要为学生的将来着想,不能因片面追求学分,而忽略了学生德育、体育等方面的教育工作。他们所要学会的除了书本知识,还有如何生活、如何做人。 

从前“老师”是一种权威的化身,尤其在中小学时代,学生更是唯师命是从;但是随着旧社会规范的解体,老师权威的偶像渐被打破,在社会普遍追求“民主”、“自由”的价值观之下,传统老师的角色遭受到严厉的挑战。在大学校园事件愈演愈烈的同时,向来平静无波的中小学,亦有风声鹤唳之势,校园师生关系的紧张程度,令人触目惊心,此现象与问题值得关怀与深思。

教育工作者是经师也是人师是老师也是朋友。

Part 2 Travel

The journey begins when you get on the plane and take off from China. The trip from China to the U.S.A. is only the first step of your Long March. You may travel to many places in the U.S., and even around the world by air, water or land. The dialogues in this part would help you move around.

Topic 14 Buying Air Tickets

Dialogue 1

Amy: Brian, my sister is coming to the U.S. for a trade show.

Brian: Cool! Can she come here?

Amy: No, she will be in San Francisco.

Brian: Are you going to see her?

Amy: Yes. I want to go. How could I get my tickets?

Brian: You can call the airlines, or you can buy it on the net.

Amy: Which way is better?

Brian: Well, calling the airlines will get you personal attention. But

searching the net may get you a better price.

Amy: The web is convenient. I will search on the net first, and then call

the airlines.

Brian: Good idea.

Dialogue 2 (Telephone conversation)

Airline Clerk: Hello, Northwest Airlines, this is Linda, how can I help

you?

Amy: Hi, Linda, this is Amy. I want to book a ticket from New

York to San Francisco.

Airline Clerk: When do you want to go?

Amy: The 15th of next month. I checked on the web, and the

price is $158 for around trip if I leave early in the morning.

Airline Clerk: When do you want to come back?

Amy: The 21st of next month.

Airline Clerk: Yes, you can get that price if you leave at 7:00 a.m., and

come back at 9:00 p.m..

Amy: It would be next morning by the time I get back to New

York.

Airline Clerk: Right, three-hour time difference plus five-hour flight.

You will get back to New York at 5:00 a.m.. That is why the price is low.

Amy: That is fine. My frequent flyer number is 626 866 888.

Airline Clerk: I got it.

Amy: Can I have electronic tickets?

Airline Clerk: Yes. Are you going to pay by credit card?

Amy: Yes. Mastercard.

Airline Clerk: What is your card number?

Amy: 5400 3300 5291 5782.

Airline Clerk: Expiration date?

Amy: 04/04.

Airline Clerk: You are all set. Give me your e-mail address, and I’ll send

you your itinerary.

Amy: amy@yahoo.com

Airline Clerk: Okay. I’ll send it right away. Thanks for choosing

Northwest Airlines.

New Words and Expressions:

trade show: 展览

personal attention: 亲自

convenient: 方便

book a ticket: 定票

frequent flyer: 里程累计会员

electronic ticket: 电子票

expiration date: 有效期

Notes:

美国的机票价钱相差很大,从纽约到旧金山的票价可以是100美元到1200美元。双程比单程便宜,星期六晚上不回来要便宜些, 提前三周定票也会省好多钱。有很多不同的省钱的办法,在网上找便宜票是其中之一。要是回中国,到中国人开的旅行社买票是最好的选择。

Additional Expressions:

Would you care for a cup of tea?喝杯茶好吗? Like some ice-cream?来点冰淇淋,怎么样? Thanks, that would be terrific.谢谢,那太好了。 May I make an appointment with Dr. Yang this afternoon?我能不能和阳教授今天下午约个时间? I wander if you are free tomorrow afternoon. I’d like to have a talk with you.不知你明天下午有没有空,我想和你聊聊。 I am afraid I can’t keep my appointment with you this Sunday.这个星期天和你的约会我恐怕来不了。 Can we change our appointment to next Monday?我们把约会改到下周一好吗? What time is good for you? 你说什么时间好? How about Sunday morning? 星期天上午怎么样?

Topic 15 Checking in at the Airport

Dialogue 1

Amy: Excuse me. Where can I check in?

Clerk: Where are you going, Miss?

Amy: I’m going to England by Flight B.E. 987.

Clerk: We are checking in here. May I have your ticket? And your

health certificate, and your baggage, please.

Amy: Here you are.

Clerk: This is your baggage check, which you must show when you

disembark at your destination, and here is your boarding pass and your ticket.

Amy: Thanks.

Clerk: Now could you wait until your flight is called? There about

twenty-five minutes to go.

Amy: I’m a little nervous. I have never flown before.

Clerk: There is nothing at all to worry about. Once you’re up in the

air, it’s just like sitting in your own living room. It’s going to be a very pleasant flight.

Amy: All right, good-bye.

Dialogue 2

Clerk: Hello, how can I help you?

Amy: Hi, I’ve got an electronic ticket.

Clerk: May I see your ID?

Amy: Sure.

Clerk: You are heading for San Francisco today?

Amy: Yes.

Clerk: Are you checking any bags in?

Amy: One.

Clerk: Have your bags been with you since you packed them?

Amy: Yes.

Clerk: Did anybody ask you to take anything for them?

Amy: No.

Clerk: You are all set. Here is your boarding pass. Gate A26.

Amy: Could you make sure my frequent flyer number is there?

Clerk: Yes, it is on your boarding pass.

Amy: Thanks.

Clerk: Have a nice trip!

New Words and Expressions:

certificate: 证明

disembark: 登陆

destination: 目的地

boarding pass: 登机牌

nervous: 紧张

ID: identification card 身份证

Notes:

9.11 事件以后,在机场办理登机手续要花很长的时间。美国国内航班要提前二小时到机场,国际航线要三个小时。和机场人员打交道要耐心,记住安全第一。

Additional Expressions:

What are you interested in?你对什么感兴趣? Are you interested in foreign languages?你对外语感兴趣吗? Gambling is not my cup of tea.我对赌博不感兴趣。 I think football is boring. Football just isn’t my thing.我认为足球没意思,我对足球没兴趣。 I’d rather stay at home than go out.我宁愿呆在家里也不要出去。 I prefer doing something useful outside to staying at home reading. 我宁可到外面做点有益的事,也比呆在家里看小说好。 Excuse me. I was wondering if you’d be willing to switch seats with me?对不起,不知你是否愿意和我换换座位? I’d be happy to. 好啊,(非常愿意)。 I’d really appreciate it. 我非常感激。

Topic 16 Picking Up Baggage

Dialogue 1

Amy: Excuse me. Where do I pick up my bags?

Clerk: Follow the signs to Baggage Claim. There will be monitors to

show your flight number and your bags will come out of there.

Amy: What if I can not find my baggage?

Clerk: There is a Northwest counter at the Baggage Claim area. You

can talk to them.

Amy: What do I need to show them?

Clerk: Give them your baggage ticket and leave your address and phone number with them.

Amy: Thanks.

Clerk; You are welcome.

Dialogue 2

Amy: Excuse me. Is this for flight 898?

Clerk: Yes.

Amy: Have all the bags come out already?

Clerk: Not yet. Wait for a while. If you can’t find your bags, let me know.

Amy: Thanks.

New Words and Expressions:

Baggage Claim: 领行李的地方

monitor: 显示屏

counter: 服务台

Notes:

在旅行中丢了行李会很沮丧,要跟着领取行李的标志走。在行李领取处,可能有几个传送带,看好了显示屏,不要等错了地方。

Additional Expressions:

Personally, I entirely approve of the plan.就我个人来说,我完全赞成这个计划。 That’s fine with me.正合我意。 Absolutely yes.当然赞成。 Definitely not! I don’t even approve of adults smoking!绝对不赞成!我甚至不赞成大人抽烟。 In all honesty,…说实话,…… I’m really satisfied with your work.我对你的工作很满意。 I have no doubt about it.我完全相信。 I take your word for it.我相信你的话。Tell me another.我才不信呢。 I doubt it.我表示怀疑。 You’re kidding!你开玩笑吧! I’m not so sure I believe that!我可不太相信。

Topic 17 Aboard a Train

Dialogue 1

Brian: I’d like to have a Pullman ticket to New York.

Clerk: Which train do you want to take?

Brian: The 18:05 train.

Clerk: Sorry. There aren’t any tickets available for the 18:05 train.

Brian: When is the next train to New York?

Clerk: The next train will leave at 20:20, and get in New York in the small hours of the morning.

Brian: Is there an express before then?

Clerk: Yes, there is one that leaves at 19:07, but you’ll have to make a connection at Albany.

Brian: Well, I guess I’ll just hang around for a while and see if there’s any minute cancellation for 20:05 Pullman.

Clerk: That’s a good idea. Take a chance.

Dialogue 2

Brian: Excuse me. Is this the right train for New York?

Passenger: No. It is going in the opposite direction.

Brain: Oh, no! I’ve got on the wrong train. I have an important meeting to attend at 9 o’clock. What shall I do?

Passenger: You can get off at the next stop and wait for a train bound for New York.

Brian: I see. How soon will the train come, do you know?

Passenger: Sorry, I don’t know. But I think you can ask the clerk there after you get off.

Brian: That’s the only thing I can do now. Thank you for telling me.

Passenger: You are welcome.

New Words and Expressions:

Pullman: 卧铺车

available: 现成的

hang around: 转一转

minute cancellation: 临时退票

Additional Expressions:

I’m determined to teach him a lesson. 我下决心要教训他一顿。 I have make up my mind to improve my poor English.我下决心要提高我那蹩脚英语了。 I’ll come to a final decision.我将作最终决定。 I’ve made a decision.我已作了决定。 I’ve decided it’s time to do it.我决定就现在做。 I think we are obliged to. 我认为我们不得不这样。 I’m still hesitating about it.我仍在犹豫不决。 I’m not sure. I’ll have to think it over.我还不肯定,我得好好考虑考虑。 Let me think for a minute. Well, I guess so.让我想想,好吧,我想可以。

Topic 18 Seaport

Dialogue 1

Amy: Thank you so much for coming to see me off.

Joe: Don’t mention it. And at what pier is the steamer?

Amy: Pier No.2.

Joe: When will the ship sail?

Amy: The ship sails in ten minutes.

Joe: Then you should get on board immediately. I hope you’ll have a pleasant voyage.

Amy: Thank you. I must go now.

Joe: Remember to write to me. Good-bye.

Amy: Good-bye.

Dialogue 2

Brian: The channel boats are quite fast, aren’t they?

Amy: Yes, very. They make the trip in about an hour.

Brian: I hope we shan’t have a rough passage.

Amy: No, I hope not. I want to have a deck chair and enjoy the crossing.

Brain: That’s a good idea.

Amy: The sea seems quite calm, so there will be no fear of seasickness. Are you much given to mal der mer?

Brian: Yes, unfortunately. I’m very much subject to it.

Amy: I’m not a very good sailor, either. My mother is a dreadfully poor sailor. In fact, she never takes a voyage unless she has to. I am better than that, but even on the Pacific, after ten days of it, I can still find my sea legs. Well, happily we shall have a smooth passage today.

Brain: Yes, this little boat gets up a fine speed and I think we’ll soon get to the land.

Amy: Yeah, I am of the opinion.

New Words and Expressions:

voyage: 航行

get on board: 登(船)。

pier: 码头

steamer: 船

mal der mer: (法语) 晕船

be subject to: 容易(受到)

I am of the same opinion: 我也这

样想(有同感)

Additional Expressions:

I’m hopping to have a day off.我希望能放一天假。 I hope you’re not upset with me.我希望不感到我烦。 I really don’t care.我真的不在乎 I don’t care one way or the other.我都无所谓。 I’m pleased to hear that.听到这个消息我非常高兴。 I can’t say how pleased I was when I was accepted by Stamford University.我无法表达我被斯坦福大学录取的喜悦心情。 Wow! That’s fantastic! 哇!太棒了。 I’m very excited by the news that Stone broke the world record.听到石头打破了世界记录,我真的太激动了。 How exciting!太令人兴奋了!

Topic 19 Taxi and Car Renting

Dialogue 1

Amy: Hi! Taxi!

Driver: Where to, miss?

Amy: Can you take me downtown?

Driver: Sure. Please hop in.

Amy: OK.

Driver: Now off we go!

Amy: Excuse me, is it a long ride to go downtown?

Driver: It’ll will be half an hour because the streets are heavy with traffic now.

Amy: Is it rush hour now?

Driver: Yes, it is. Are you in a hurry?

Amy: No, I’m not. So please drive slowly.

Driver: All right.

Amy: At least, how much should I pay you?

Driver: Well, the fare is shown on the meter, miss.

Amy: I see, 28 dollars. Here is 30 dollars. Keep the change please.

Driver: Thank you very much. Good-bye!

Amy: Good-bye!

Dialogue 2

Clerk: Hello, how are you doing today?

Amy: Pretty good. I’m picking up my car.

Clerk: May I have your driver’s license and a major card?

Amy: Sure.

Clerk: We have a compact car for you. Do you want to upgrade to a full size for only $5 per day?

Amy: Okay. What cars do you have?

Clerk: You can pick from a Ford Taurus, a Toyota Camry and a Nissan Altima.

Amy: I would like the Toyota Camry.

Clerk: Would you like to have comprehensive and collision insurance?

Amy: No, thank you.

Clerk: Then sign here to show you refused the insurance, please.

Amy: Okay.

Clerk: Would you like to buy a full tank of gas for $25? It works out to $1.25per gallon.

Amy: No. I’m not sure how much I will drive.

Clerk: Then you need to fill the gas when you return the car. Or the charge would be $2.00 per gallon.

Amy: Okay.

Clerk: The total is $230 for 6 days. Please sign here. If you need an extension, give us a call.

Amy: Okay.

Clerk: Your car is a blue one, number 26 in the parking lot. Here is the key. Have fun!

Amy: Thanks.

New Words and Expressions:

Hop in: 上车

Now off we go! 坐好,走了。

meter: 计程器

change: 零钱

pick up a car: 定车

compact car: 小型车

upgrade: 提高等级

license: 驾照。

major credit card: (主)信用卡

comprehensive and collision

insurance: 综合和撞车保险

charge: 收费

sign: 签字

extension: 延长

Notes:

在美国租车很方便,每个机场都有很多租车公司。车可以还给其各地的任何分公司,但还到同一地点比到外地要便宜。事业租车公司还可以免费给你送车或取车。

Additional Expressions:

I’m dying to have my own car.我真渴望有一辆属于自己的车。 I’m really longing for a pay raise.我真盼望加工资呀! It’s a shame we can’t get together.太可惜了,我们不能聚在一起。 I’m very disappointed in her for failing the exam.她考试不及格让我感到非常失望。 How disappointing!多么令人失望呀!

Topic 20 Hotel and Motel

Dialogue 1

Amy: Hey, Brian. Where are we going to stay tonight?

Brain: We can stay in a motel or a hotel.

Amy: What’s the difference?

Brain: A motel is cheaper and offers free parking.

Amy: So a hotel charges for parking?

Brain: Most of them do. Hotels are better and more expensive.

Amy: Let’s stay in a motel. I’m cheap.

Dialogue 2

Amy: Look! There is a motel 5 mile a head.

Brian: Oh, the Super 8.

Amy: Why is it called Super 8?

Brian: It was 8 bucks per day when first started.

Amy: I hope it’s still $8 now.

Brian: In your dreams.

New Words and Expressions:

motel: 汽车旅馆

free parking: 免费停车

cheap: 想省钱,吝啬。

In your dreams: 净做白日梦。

Notes:

汽车旅馆在美国很流行,因为大家都有车,也经常开旅游车。另一种省钱的旅游的方式是露营。

Additional Expressions:

I’m so curious about it.我很想看看是什么样子的。 Are you serious? That sounds crazy.当真?简直不可思议。 I have to say your statement surprises me.我不得不说,你的话使我感到很惊讶。 How amazing!太令人吃惊了。 I can’t believe that. 简直让人难以置信。 I have complete confidence in our success.我对胜利充满信心。 There is nothing to worry about.没什么可担心的。 I’m not too sure. I’m not too hopeful.我没把握,没什么希望了。

Topic 21 Checking In Hotel or Motel

Dialogue 1

Clerk: Good afternoon, sir! What can I do for you?

Brian: We are Amy and Brian. We sent you a cable, asking you to reserve two single rooms.

Clerk: Right. That’s your telegram. We have reserved rooms number 415 and 416, two single room. Now please fill in these registration forms.

Brain: All right. By the way, what’s the check-out time?

Clerk: The check-out time is twelve noon. But there is no extra charge if you vacate your room before 1:00 p.m.

Brian: I’ll remember that. Please have my baggage brought up.

Clerk: Yes, of course.

Dialogue 2

Clerk: Can I help you?

Amy: I need a room.

Clerk: Have you made a reservation?

Amy: No. Do you have a room available?

Clerk: Yes.

Amy: How much is it?

Clerk: For how many people?

Amy: One.

Clerk: Smoking or non?

Amy: Non.

Clerk: For how many nights?

Amy: One.

Clerk: $45.

Amy: OK.

Clerk: How would you like to settle your bill?

Amy: By credit card.

Clerk: May I see your credit card?

Amy: Sure.

Clerk: Could you please initial here at the rate?

Amy: Sure.

Clerk: Here is the key to your room, 216. You can take the stairs on the right, and your room is the 2nd floor. Checkout time is 12:00 noon.

Amy: Thanks.

Clerk: We have free breakfast in the lobby from 6 to 10 in the morning.

Amy: Thank you. Could you wake me up at 7:00 in the morning?

Clerk: Sure. Have a good night.

Amy: Thanks.

New Words and Expressions:

reservation: 预定

settle bill: 付账

check in: 入住

checkout: 退房,结账。

Notes:

汽车旅馆和宾馆都有吸烟和不吸烟房。房价有时和所住的人数有关。美国汽车协会和加拿大汽车协会出版的旅游书里,列有大多数汽车旅馆和宾馆的房价、设备、联系电话和路线。

Additional Expressions:

I have a feeling that we are doomed to lose the game.我有一种感觉,我们注定会输掉这场赛。 I’m scared of snakes. 我怕蛇。 I’m worried about getting lost.我真担心会迷路。 I’m very concerned that I’m going to fail my English exam. 我很担心我的英语考试会不及格。 Thank goodness you found it.谢天谢地,找到了。 Oh, that’s a relief.哦,那就好办了。 In fact, he is very easygoing.实际上,她很好相处。

Topic 22 Checking Out of Hotel or Motel

Dialogue 1 (Amy wants to leave the hotel at noon. She makes a telephone call to the reception desk)

Clerk: Hello, reception desk.

Amy: Hello. This is room 216. I’m checking out at noon. May I have my bill up to my room now?

Clerk: Yes, right away.

Amy: One more thing. Could you have a taxi ready for me by then?

Clerk: No problem. Would you have someone to take down your baggage?

Amy: Don’t bother. Thanks.

Dialogue 2

Clerk: Checking out?

Amy: Yes. Here is the key.

Clerk: Room number?

Amy: 216.

Clerk: $45 for the room, $2.5 for telephone calls, and $5 for the movie. The total is $56.79 including tax.

Amy: OK.

Clerk: Do you want to leave it on your credit card?

Amy: Yes.

Clerk: Can I see your credit card again?

Amy: Sure.

Clerk: Could you sign here?

Amy: Sure.

Clerk: Here’s your receipt. You are all set. Thanks for staying with us.

Amy: Thank you for everything.

New Words and Expressions:

reception desk: 前(服务)台

bill: 账单

receipt: 收据, 发票。

Notes:

汽车旅馆和宾馆都有退房的时间,大都在中午12点。过了退房时间要多收钱。有些旅馆看闭路电影要付费,但多数旅馆有一个免费的闭路电影台。一定要问一下市内电话是否要收费。

Additional Expressions:

I regret that I have to break up with my friend. 我很遗憾我不得不和朋友分道扬镖。 Very sorry to hear that.听到这个消息我很难过。 Oh, how terrible for Tom. I’m so sorry. 噢,汤姆太苦了,我真难过。 That’s really tough.真是不幸。 I am really tired of her gossip. 她的多最多舌真让我受不了。 I am fed up with typing eight hours a day.每天打字八小时,我烦透了。 His behavior made me sick.他的行为令我作呕。 I can’t stand it when people throw litter all over the park.我无法容忍人们在公园里乱扔垃圾。 Throwing litter all over the park is very annoying.在公园里乱扔垃圾真讨厌。

Topic 23 Asking for Directions

Dialogue 1

Amy: Excuse me, sir.

Policeman: What can I do for you?

Amy: Can you tell me which subway goes to the Metropolitan Art Museum?

Policeman: Yes, cross the street here, then go straight for one block. Turn right and walk for one more block, then make a left. You’ll find a subway entrance right on the corner.

Amy: It sounds complicated.

Policeman: Isn’t clear?

Amy: Yes, I follow you.

Policeman: You can’t miss it.

Dialogue 2

Amy: Excuse me? I forgot to ask you how to get to the Holiday Inn.

Clerk: Oh, sure. Here is a map. Are you going to the downtown Holiday Inn?

Amy: Yes.

Clerk: Get out of the parking lot. Turn left to get on Airport Drive. Go straight to for half mile. Turn right to get on Route 2 north. Go about 15 miles on Route 2. Get off at Exit 12. Turn right to get on to Broadway. Go on for another mile and the Holiday Inn is on the right hand side.

Amy: Are there any major landmarks before the Holiday Inn?

Clerk: There is a Mobile gas station right before Holiday Inn. If you see that gas station, you are close to the hotel.

Amy: Thanks.

Clerk: Here is the number of the hotel. If you get lost, give them a call.

Amy: Thank you very much!

Clerk: Have a nice day!

Amy: You too!

New Words and Expressions:

subway: 地铁

entrance: 入口

complicated: 复杂

downtown: 市中心

go straight: 直走

right hand side: 右手边

Notes:

在美国,开车上路之前一定要弄清行走路线,走丢了可不是好玩的,还很危险。有的人你给了钱才肯告诉你怎么走,这是算好的。要是碰上坏人,那就麻烦大了。最好在出发之前问租车公司的工作人员。

Additional Expressions:

I suppose there’s nothing we can do about it.我们又有什么办法呢? Well, that’s life. 唉,这就是生活。 What a day! I’m about to drop. 真累!我快要倒了。 I’m just so tired at the end of the day. 一天下来我累得不行了。 You ‘d better get out of the way! The train is coming.你最好躲开!火车来了! You’d better not walk over there!你最好不要在那里走! You might slip!会滑倒的! Behave yourself. Don’t be so childish. 规矩点!别这么小孩子气。 You ought to be ashamed of what you’ve done. 你该为自己的行为感到羞耻。 It’s so impolite. You’re an idiot! 太没礼貌了,你简直是个白痴!

Topic 24 Sightseeing

Dialogue 1

Brian: You’re already back from New York City. How was it?

Amy: It was just great.

Brian: Wasn’t t too crowded, busy and never-racking?

Amy: Well, there were many people in the streets, even at night and in the midtown everyone seemed to be rushing somewhere.

Brain: What did you see?

Amy: We visited the Stature of Liberty, the South Seaport Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Cloisters…

Brian: Did you go up the Empire State Building?

Amy: No, but we planed to, but we couldn’t get around to doing that.

Brian: What did you like best?

Amy: Everything was wonderful but the best was Washington Square.

Brain: Well, you really had a wonderful trip.

Dialogue 2

Lily: Amy, I have always wanted to go to DC. What does it look like?

Amy: It reminds me of Beijing. The streets are wide, the buildings are huge and there are tourists everywhere.

Lily: Where did you go in DC?

Amy: We went to the top of the Washington Monument. We waited in the line to get up there.

Lily: Was it good?

Amy: Yes. You can see the White House, the Capitol Hill, the Lincoln Memorial and the Jefferson Memorial on the four sides of the Monument. What great views!

Lily: Did you go to the White House?

Amy: Yes, we did. You need to get up early in the morning to wait in line to get the tickets. They give just a limited number of tickets each day.

Lily: How about the Capitol Hill?

Amy: It is such a glorious building on the hill up there. There are a lot of paintings inside of historical events and the leaders of the past.

Lily: Did you go anywhere else?

Amy: I also went to New York.

Lily: What is there that is of interest?

Amy: We went up to the top of Empire State Building. It was scary. The cars down the streets look like little bugs from up there.

Lily: Did you see the Statue of Liberty?

Amy: Sure. We took a boat to the island and took a picture with the Statue.

Lily: Did you climb up the Statue?

Amy: No, I didn’t want to do that. Some friends did. They were crazy.

Lily: Which is your favorite tourist spot in the U.S.?

Amy: I like Hawaii the most. Such good weather year around, such blue sea water with sand beaches and such beautiful palm trees and all the dancing girls around you.

Lily: Sounds like heaven. Which is your 2nd favorite?

Amy: Niagara Falls, the largest falls in the world. You can hear the roaring water even before you reach them. Such a breath-taking view of the falls.

Lily: I heard the view is even better at night.

Amy: Yes, they cast colorful beams on the Falls which are beautiful.

New Words and Expressions:

crowded: 拥挤

DC: District of Columbia的缩

写。美国首都华盛顿所在

的哥伦比亚特区。

remind: 使人想起

palm tree: 棕榈树

falls: 瀑布

breath-taking view: 叹为观止的

景色

crazy: 疯了

Notes:

了解一个国家最好的办法是到处旅行。这样可以看到不同城市的风光,遇到不同的人,听到不同的口音和受到热情的招待及冷遇。有机会到美国,一定要到哥伦比亚特区、纽约、加州、尼加拉大瀑布和夏威夷去看看。

Additional Expressions:

Get lost, or I’ll call the police to arrest you. 滚开!否则我就叫警察抓你。 Don’t you dare!你敢! Please stop talking, or I’ll kick you out.不要讲话了!否则我把你们踢出去。 Don’t worry. Everything will turn out all right.不要担心,一切都会好的。 Come on! It’s not the end of the world. It could happen to anyone.好啦!又不是世界末日,这种事人人都可能会遇到的。 I promise it’ll be ready by five.我保证五点前就会弄好。 I’m counting on you to take care of my car.我还指望(依靠)你照顾我的车呢。 I won’t let you down.我不会让你失望的。

Topic 25 Museums

Dialogue

Lily: Amy, I like museum a lot. Have you been to any?

Amy: Yes. I’ve been to Art Museum and the Aerospace Museum in DC, the Art Museum and the Children’s Museum in Ottawa and the Historical Museum in Worcester.

Lily: Wow, quite a few. I noticed you have been to most of the museums in the capital of the U.S. and Canada. Why is that?

Amy: Simple. The museums in the capitals are free.

Lily: Really? I can’t wait to go. What is good in these museums?

Amy: I was impressed by the Children’s Museum in Ottawa. They let kids play and learn at the same time. It is like studying and having fun at the same time.

Lily: What a great idea. How about in DC?

Amy: I like the Aerospace Museum the best. They have various air planes starting with Wright Brothers’. They also have a movie theater which makes you feel like you are up in the sky.

Lily: Isn’t that scary?

Amy: It’s both scary and exciting

Lily: I’d like to try that!

New Words and Expressions:

Art Museum: 艺术博物馆

Aerospace Museum: 航天博物馆

Historical Museum: 历史博物馆

impress:给…留下深刻的印象。

movie theater: 电影院

scary: 吓人

Notes:

美国的博物馆很多,几乎每个城市都有自己的历史博物馆。大多数博物馆很有意思,也能学到东西。

Additional Expressions:

I give you my word that he will do a good job. 我保证他的工作一定会干得很出色。 You can be sure this is the best apartment for the price in the whole city.我保证这是全城价格最低的公寓。 I guarantee that our product is better than the competition’s. 我担保我们的产品比同类产品要好。 I assure you I won’t raise your rent.我保证不会提高你的房租。 You’d better hurry up!你最好给我快点! Run along now! The train is leaving.快走吧!火车要开了。

Topic 26 Camping

Dialogue 1

Lily: Hi, Amy, would you like to get away from the city and come to the Rocky with me and my family next week?

Amy: Yes, do I need anything?

Lily: Well, the first thing is a sleeping bag.

Amy: I don’t get it. What do I need a sleeping bag for?

Lily: For sleeping in, of course. You can share our tent.

Amy: Do you mean this is a camping trip?

Lily: That’s right, so insect repellent is a good idea.

Amy: Why do I need that?

Lily: Oh! You should use insect repellent there, or you’ll get eaten alive.

Amy: What else will I need?

Lily: You might need an extra set of warm clothes.

Amy: Why do I need those? It’s the middle of summer!

Lily: Just case it rains or suddenly turns cold.

Amy: Good thinking.

Dialogue 2

Amy: Lily, do you want to go camping tonight?

Lily: Sounds like fun.

Amy: It is fun. I’ve bought a tent from Wal-Mart. It’s big enough for both of us.

Lily: Does the tent have a base?

Amy: Yeah, not only a base, but also windows.

Lily: That’s lovely. Do we just sleep on the grass?

Amy: No! You silly girl! We have plastic air mattresses to sleep on. We’ll also bring blankets or sleeping bags.

Lily: Then we need an air pump to blow up the mattresses.

Amy: Yes, I’ve got the pump too.

Lily: You are all set to go. Sound like you have done this before.

Amy: Yes. I went camping when I went to Washington DC in summer. It’s much cheaper than a hotel.

Lily: How much is a camping site?

Amy: There is one not far from here, $12 per night.

Lily: Do they have electricity?

Amy: They do. They also have showers, restrooms, barbecue racks and picnic tables.

Lily: What else can we do?

Amy: We can go mountain hiking, fishing, swimming, biking and boating.

Lily: What are we waiting for? Let’s go!

New Words and Expressions:

sleeping bag: 睡袋

tent: 帐篷

insect: 昆虫

repellent: 杀虫剂

extra: 额外的

plastic air mattresses: 塑料充气床垫

pump: 气泵

electricity: 电

barbecue rack: 烧烤架

mountain hiking: 爬山。

Notes:

在美国,露营也是一种休闲活动,在夏天就是廉价旅馆。如果是在南方,比如佛罗里达冬天也可以露营。

Additional Expressions:

Oh, come on. I’m sure you wouldn’t like living like that all your life. So go for it. 好了,好了。你肯定不愿 象那样过一辈子。那就好好争取吧。 Can I remind you to call me at 7 o’clock tomorrow morning?我提醒你一下,明早七点叫醒我。 You didn’t by any chance remember to turn on the dryer, did you?你没记住开干衣机,是吧? They must have missed the train. 他们准是误了火车。 Something bad must have happened.肯定发生了什么不好的事。 Don’t jump to conclusions.不要草率下结论。

  古人云"集腋成裘,聚沙成塔",这句话着意强调了积累的作用。积累是一个量变引起质变的过程,要发生质变,没有一定的量变做基础是不行的。学习首先要解决的问题是知识的从无到有、从少到多、从浅到深。

因此,一定量的积累对任何学科都是非常必要的,尤其是英语这门细水长流的科目,绝大多数同学都是在母语的影响下学习的。学习的遗忘频率很高,知识面又很窄,所以必要的量的积累就显得尤为重要。

  那么,在英语学习中应如何进行积累呢?笔者结合自身的经验和体会,就该问题谈一些看法,以期对同学们提高成绩,学好英语这门学科有所帮助。

  首先,应注意积累日常用语和习惯表达,由于中西方不同文化的差异,造成了语言的使用上的一些差别。使用英语就必须了解其使用背景,要做到见什么人说什么话,在什么场合说什么话,比如,中国人见面总爱说"Have you eaten yet?"或"Where are you going?"之类的问候语,而这在英美人士看来是很不礼貌的,他们会对你过分关注其隐私而不快。再如中国人吃饭时,如果一人打喷嚏,别的人会说"Someone is missing you."或"Someone is talking about you."之类的话,而英美人士则说"Bless you."。如果你对这些不了解,在交往的过程中就很容易引起别人的误解。另外,英语中有许多习惯表达都不符合语法规则,甚至有些和语法规则是相悖的。这些习惯表达都是约定俗成的。你最好的选择就是遵从,否则必然会出错。由此可见,能够正确地使用日常用语和习惯表达是交流成功的基础,所以在平时的学习当中应当做个有心人,在这方面多做些积累,如多看看《英语辅导报》每期的"口语之窗"栏目,以及一些著名的、有教育意义的英文影片等等。

  其次,注意积累词汇和各种动词、副词短语,词汇是语言的核心。语言学家 Wikins有句名言:没有语法只能传达很少的信息,没有词汇则什么也无法传达。语言学家Laufer通过调查发现,外语学习者如拥有5000词汇量,阅读正确率可达56%,词汇量6400,阅读正确率可达63%。他同时指出,5000词汇量是阅读的最低限,而大多数中国高中毕业生词汇量均在2500上下,这才是最低限的1/2,显然是远不能满足需求的。因此,提高词汇量应当作为英语学习的重中之重来抓,就拿高考来讲,有时候到了关键的地方偏偏又遇上了生词这个"拦路虎",如果对关键词的意思把握不准,仅凭猜测与推断是很难奏效的,对词汇的积累是英语学习永恒的主旋律。

  英语中的动词、副词短语,就像汉语中的成语,不仅词义丰富,而且数量很多,搭配很灵活,像break up和break down都有"分解"的意思。但什么时候使用哪一个,就得有清晰的概念与范畴。

对于这些词语,学生极易搞混淆,记忆时常常模棱两可。但我们并不能因为难于掌握就轻视它们、放弃它们。我们的口号是"哪里有压迫,哪里就有反抗!"越易混的东西我们就越要下决心把它弄彻底,让它稔熟于心。只有这样,知识的纯熟度才会提高。我们要有信心、下苦功、花大力气对各种短语进行积累,进行彻底地掌握。《英语辅导报》及《英语通》的"原汁原味"上刊登的文章信息性、时代性都很强,上面的新单词都有社会新时尚的气息,可记性非常强。多记记其中的单词,对词汇和短语的积累会有极大的促进作用。另外,《英语辅导报》和《英语通》每期的"同近义词语辨析"为你彻底掌握短语提供了理想的材料和天地;"知识归纳"为你系统地掌握各类短语开辟了理想的广场。建议大家平时多看、多思、多想、多练。长期坚持下去,必将硕果满枝。

  再次,注意对学习中遇到的各种"疑难杂症",平时考试、测验时做错的题目应整理积累,由于自己平时学习时某个知识点掌握不够,很可能因此在考试中失利。若能对其做系统地归纳整理,定期查阅,既能起到查漏补缺的作用,又可避免一错再错的发生,建议大家编制一个《错题集》,对自己平时考试或测验时做错的题目归纳整理,用醒目的笔标出题号,找出错误之根源,加以评注,这样做虽然有些"杂",但它对于以点带面促进英语学习却有帮助,这样做了以后,定期翻看,对错题进行筛选,划掉已懂的题目,对不懂的或感到疑惑的题目一定要弄懂,在期中、期末复习时你可以以它为主,它不仅节约了宝贵的时间,而且使你的复习有了重点,切记一定要持之以恒,不能半途而废。

  总之,在英语学习中积累是相当重要的一环,每一个学海寻珍、书山探宝的同学都应牢记。通过不断的积累,定能使自己的知识逐渐丰富起来,成为浩瀚的大海,成为峭拔的高山 。

  哈市一名高一学生问:“我初中时英语学得还不错,到了高中以后,上课非常注意听讲,可一到测试时就会发现,卷子上出现许多我不认识的单词,即使是语法会了,可不认识单词,做题时频频出错,我应该怎样学习?”

  答:初高中英语学习方法不一样,初中英语教材内容不多,教师授课时反复讲的知识较多;高中的英语内容多,老师反复讲的知识少,并且词汇量和语法内容都有所增加,这些都是造成学生学英语困难的原因。

学英语要循序渐进、逐步养成良好的学习习惯。

  高一新生想学好英语应该做到当日学的英语知识都掌握,因为高中英语教材涉及的知识点多、词汇量大,如果学生当天不及时复习将错过最佳复习时机。另外,课前预习是学好英语必须做的准备工作。

  学生在课堂上要学会记笔记,听懂的知识点不等于就完全掌握了。学生应该在课堂上记好笔记,并在课后做一些与教材同步的练习题,不断巩固知识。

  学生学习英语背单词不能含糊,但有好多学生找不到记忆单词、增加词汇量的好方法。其实记忆单词,扩大词汇量的方法很简单,即根据单词的发音并利用零散时间背诵再加上整块时间集中背诵相结合的方法来记忆。比如对20个单词进行第一次背诵时,可以采取整块时间来背,可以将20个单词分成4组,每组分配5个单词,背完第4组后再重新回到第1组,进行反复记忆;课间、路上和临睡前的零散时间可以随时背诵,用来巩固背诵英语单词。学生在记忆英语单词时还应注意一个单词的后面列出了几种词性和词义,这些都是今后在高考中可能涉及到的考点。学生在做练习的同时还应该关注阅读理解和完形填空的自我训练,因为这两种题型都是高考中的常见题型。

Unit 3 The land down under

The First Period

Teaching Aims:

1.Learn and master the new words for names of places.

2.Do some listening.

3. Do some speaking to practise expressing prohibitions and warnings.

Teaching Important Points:

1.Train the students’ listening ability by listening practice.

2.Train the students’ speaking ability by talking about the favorite places, give reasons for their decision and make some dialogues.

Teaching Difficult Points:

1.How to improve the students’ listening ability.

2.How to help students finish the task of speaking.

Teaching Methods:

Warming up to arouse the students’ interest in visiting Australia.

Listening-and-answering activity to help the students go through the listening material.

3.Individual, pair or group work to make every student work in class.

Teaching Aids:

1. a tape recorder

2. the blackboard

Teaching Procedures:

Step I Warming up

T: Look at the map of Australia. It shows six states and territories, and more famous cities, such as Sydney, Canberra, and Melbourne. We can also see the Great Barrier Reef. What would you like to visit?

S: I’d like to visit Sydney. It’s a seaside city. It has rich beaches and many parks that are worth seeing. There is the most famous Sydney Opera House and the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

S: I hope to visit Canberra. It is the capital of Australia. It is the political and cultural center of Australia.

S: I feel like going to the Great Barrier Reef. It is the greatest coral in the world. It lies off the northeast coast of Australia.

Step II Listening

T: Listen to Part1 . For the first time, you just get a general idea. Listen again, and do exx1-3.

Step III Speaking

T: Now it’s your turn to plan a trip to Australia. Work in groups of five. First you are meeting to decide where to go and what to do. Give acceptable reason. One serves as a guide. If you have any questions, he’ll answer your questions and help you prepare for your trip. Then finish the role cards on P21, using the expressions to help you.

Step IV Homework

Write down the dialogue. Preview the reading material.

Step V The Design of the Writing on the Bb

Unit 3 The land down under

The First Period

Down under: in Australia

Out back: remote inland area where few people live especially in Australia.

Cities: Sydney, Melbourne, Canberra

Animals: koala, kangaroo, dingo

Famous places: Sydney, Opera House, the Great Barrier Reef

The Second Period

Teaching Aims:

1.Learn and master the useful words and phrases.

2.Train the students’ reading ability.

3.Let the students learn about the outline, history and language of Australia. Teaching Important Points:

1.Master the following phrases and sentence pattern:

have an influence on, suffer from, transform…into, have fun with sth, go walkabout, as a consequence (of)

make it adj. For sb to do sth, until…, not…until…

2.Enable the students to understand the text better.

3.Improve the students’ reading ability.

Teaching Difficult Points:

How to make the students understand the reading text better.

Teaching Methods:

Pre-reading to predict what the text tells about.

Fast reading to get a general idea and careful-reading to further understanding the text.

Post reading to check the Ss’ understanding of the text.

Explanation for Ss to master some language points.

Teaching Aids:

1.a computer

2.a tape recorder

3.the blackboard

Teaching Procedures:

Step I Lead-in and Pre-reading

T: Yesterday we learnt much about Australia. You have known some places of interest, famous cities, rare animals, national flag and national emblem of Australia. Today we’ll read some passages to learn more about it. Guess what to talk about in them. Open your books on P21. Discuss which questions will be answered in the passage and tick them.

Step II Reading

T: Now read the passage once as carefully as possible. Then answer some detailed questions on the screen. You may discuss them in pairs if necessary.

Introduction

(outline) 1.How large is Australia?

4.What’s the capital?

7.What does the Australian flag look like?

Body

(history) 2.When was Australia founded?

3.Who lives in Australia?

Conclusion

(language) 9.How is Australia English different from British and American English?

Now please read the passage again and answer the questions.

Now you have understood the detailed information. Please fill in the form.

Meanings of the symbols on the Australia flag Six of the points represent the original states and the seventh stands for all the territories. The other stars on the flag represent the Southern Cross.

First people to arrive in Australia European explorers

The first prisoners to arrive English prisoners

Reason why prisoners were sent to Australia When England couldn’t prisoners to North America, Australia was chosen as a new place.

Sth happened to the Original Australia when the European newcomers arrived They suffered. They were moved and had their land taken away from them.

Problem with Australia’s Constitution Aborigines and other non-Europeans didn’t enjoy the same rights.

Changes taking place after two world wars Australia transformed itself into the modern country as it is today.

Differences between Australia English and British English In pronunciation and some of the vocabulary

Step III Studying the language points

Be surrounded by, have an influence on, go on a journey, transform into, go walkabout, as a consequence, be harmful to, suffer from…

Make it for sb to do sth/that clause

not…until/till…

Step IV Listening and Consolidation

T: Now I’ll play the tape. You can follow it in a low voice. Pay attention to your pronunciation and intonation. Then do exx in Post-reading.

Step V The Design of the Writing on the Bb

Unit 3 The land down under

The Second Period

Useful expressions:

Claim, govern, resemble, diverse, differ

Be surrounded by, go on a journey, be a bad influence on, transform into, go walkabout, as a consequence, be harmful to, suffer from

The Third Period

Teaching Aims:

1.Learn and master the phrases.

2.Review the Predicative and the Predicative Clause

Teaching Important Points:

1.Master the part of speech can be used as the Predicative.

2.Summarize the link verbs.

3.Review the words introducing the Predicative Clause

Teaching Difficult Points:

How to help the students learn to use the Predicative correctly.

Teaching Methods:

1.Exx to review the usages of some words.

2.Inductive method to summarize the link verbs and the words introducing the Predicative Clause.

3.Lots of practice to help Ss to use the Predicative correctly.

4.Individual work or pair work to make every student work in class.

Teaching Aids:

the blackboard

Teaching Procedures:

Step I Word Study

T: Fill in the form.

words Definitions in English Examples

newcomer A person who has recently arrived in a place He is a newcomer in our class.

islandes A person living on a island The islanders live a rich life.

criminal A person who commits a crime Many criminals are put into the prison.

governor A person who govern a state or a province He was made governor of Hubei Province.

fellow Companion or comrade Her fellows share her interest in computer.

female A person who can give birth to children or produce eggs They only employ females.

The female sat on the eggs while the malebied brought food.

transform A complete change A mass immigration transformed Australia into modern nation.

strengthen To become stronger The latest development has further strengthened my determination to leave.

Now do Ex 2.

Step II Grammar

T: Now turn to P25. Please tell the meanings of the words and phrases. Check the answers. What part of speech can be used as the predicative?

The noun, pronoun, numeral, adverb, adjective, preposition, the v+ing form, the p.p. the indefinite and the Predicative Clause are used as the Predicative. Tell me link verbs. Do Ex 2.

Step III Consolidation

Do some exx to consolidate the grammar item. Check the answers.

Step IV Summary and homework

T: We’ve learned the link verbs and the Predicative Clause. Do other exx to master them better.

Finish all the exx in Grammar. Preview the content in Integrating skills.

Step VI The Design of the Writing on the Bb

Unit 3 The land down under

The Third Period

1.Used as the Predicative:

adj., n., adv., pron., prep., to do, v.+ing form, the p.p.

2.the Conjunction

(1)that, whether

(2)what, which, why, when, where, how, who, whom, whose

(3)as if, because

Link verbs:

(1) be, feel, smell, look, taste, sound, appear, seem

(2)get, become, turn, grow, go, come, fall, stand

(3)remain, prove, keep, continue, stay

The Fourth Period

Teaching Aims:

1.Revise the language points and grammar-the Predicative.

2.Learn and master the words and expressions.

3.Do some reading and writing practice to improve the students’ integrating skills.

Teaching Important Points:

1.Learn animals, size, population, agriculture and climate of Australia.

2.Train the Ss’ writing.

Teaching Difficult Points:

Improve the students’ integrating skills.

Teaching Methods:

1.Fast reading to go through the reading material.

2.Discussion method to finish the writing task.

3.Individual, pair or group work to make every student work.

Teaching Aids:

1.a computer

2.a tape recorder

3.the blackboard

Teaching Procedures:

Step I Revision

T: We reviewed the Predicative.P27, complete the sentences by using the Predicative Clause. Check.

Step II Reading

T: Through the free talk, we’ve got much information about the cities, places of interest, national flag and emblem of Australia. From the passage we read, we’ve also known the outline, history and language of Australia. Today we’ll read a passage to learn other things about it. Before reading it, please read the new words. Then read the passage quickly and find out which subjects are mentioned in it.

S: The subjects are: geography, climate, sports, animals, population, agriculture and natural resources.

T: Fill in the form:

Animals:

Distance:

Size:

Population:

Agriculture:

Natural resources:

Climate:

Sports:

Write down the phrases:

Give birth to, in area, in sources, keep out, round up, at weekends, on weekdays, off the southeast coast

Step III Listening and Discussion

T: Listen to the tape twice. Pay attention to your pronunciation. Then discuss the questions on P26 in pairs or groups. Check the answers.

Compare the climate in different areas of Australia with that found in different parts of China.

North South Center

Summer Winter Summer Winter

Australia hot, wet warm, dry warm, dry cool, wet hot, dry

China hot, dry cold, dry hot, wet wet, cool

Step IV Writing

T: Because of the position of Australia, there are many unusual animals in Australia. In this part, much information for three kinds of animals are given-a wombat, a koala bear and a dingo. Now work in groups of four. First read the information for each animal, and then have a discussion to write a passage on a piece of paper to describe your favorite animal. Check.

Step V Homework

Go over all the important points learnt in this unit and finish your writing.

Step VI The Design of the Writing on the Bb

Unit 3 The land down under

The Fourth Period

Subjects: geography, climate, sports, animals, population, agriculture, natural resources

Words: entire, plate, fence, outing, claw, hairy, medium, bushy

Phrases: give birth to. In area, keep out, round up, at weekends, on weekdays

The Fifth Period

Teaching Aims:

1.Summarize the usages of the Predicative.

2.Do exx to enable the Ss to master it and use it freely.

Teaching Important Points:

How to choose the proper form of the Predicative in order to express what we want to say.

Teaching Difficult Points:

How to choose a proper predicate according to its subject.

Teaching Methods:

1.Discussion method to let the Ss have a clear understanding.

2.Pir work or group work to make every student engaged in all the activities in class.

Teaching Aids:

1.a computer

2.the blackboard

Teaching Procedures:

Step I Grammar

Let’s do a Predicative ex. Tell what member of the sentence each underlined part is. Pay attention to the their functions and then translate them into Chinese. Check.

1. What nationality is he?

2.That’s sth we have always to keep in mind.

3.Tom is the first to learn about it.

4.Diamonds are precious.

5.The film we saw last Sunday is moving and we were all greatly moved.

6.All we can do now is to send him an e-mail.

7.He has been away for two weeks.

8.Such an article is beyond the understanding of the students.

9.Our country is not what it used to be.

Step II Practice

T: Choose a suitable answer for each sentence and give some reason if you can. Check.

1.This shirt is too .

A. little B. small C. tiny

2.I felt sorry at his words.

A. terrible B. terribly

3.Is your aunt married or ?

A. single B. alone

4.The little hero looked at the enemy.

A. angry B. angrily

5.The cotton felt .

A. soft B. softly

6.It is of you to act .

A. bad B. badly

7.He felt a little when he was .

A. lonely B. alone

8.The story of the play was and everybody acted .

A. good B. well

9.He writer.

A. turned B. became

Step III Practice and Consolidation

T: As we know, the predicate verb must agree with its subject, that is to say, a singular subject takes a single verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb. However, sometimes when the subjects are the same, the predicate verbs are different. Choose a suitable verb “be” for each sentence. Let’s do some exx.

1. Fifty miles not a great distance.

2. It Mr Li and Mr Wang who did it.

3. Her chief anxiety her children.

4. That he is wrong now clear to everybody.

5. What we need badly here doctors.

6. What we need badly here food.

7. The book will contain what considered the best short stories of the time..

8. A variety of flowers on show.

9.My clothes wet through and through.

10.These two are for you. The rest to be sent to your sister.

11.The greater part of our mistakes made through carelessness.

Step IV Homework

Write as many link verbs as you can. Then sort them and have a discussion about the their different uses.

Step V The Design of the Writing on the Bb

Unit 3 The land down under

The Predicative

What can be used as the Predicative?

Noun

Pronoun

the –ing form

Infinitive

Past Participle

Adjective

Numeral

Adverb

Prepositional phrase

Clause

Unit 8 Learning a foreign language

The First Period

Teaching Aims:

1.Talk about learning and study skills. Enable the Ss to further understand what is important in the study of a foreign language.

2.Practise giving advice. Through practicing giving advice enable the Ss to find a better way to learn English.

Teaching Important Points:

1.Enable the Ss to acquire a good way to learn a foreign language and raise their interest to studying English.

2.Improve the Ss’ speaking ability by class activities such as talking, discussing, etc.

Teaching Difficult Points:

How to improve the students’ reading ability.

Teaching Methods:

Talking method to enable the Ss to express themselves freely.

Individual, pair or group work to make every student work in class.

Careful listening to improve the Ss’ listening ability.

Teaching Aids:

1. a tape recorder

2. the blackboard

Teaching Procedures:

Step I Warming up

T: Do you like English?

S: Yes.

T: Do you find it easy or hard?

S: We find it hard.

T: We’ll talk about learning English. Which is the most importance when you are learning English and why think so.

S: I think memorizing new words and useful expressions is very important. Without large quantities of new words and expressions, you can’t listen, speak, read or write English.

S: I think learning studying skills is important as well. For example, you can’t memorize new words word by word. I mean, it’s not a good way to remember many words but not to know how to use them.

S: I think to talk with my classmates or some other person is a good way to practise spoken English. When we talk with sb, we try to use as many words as possible to express our opinions to make ourselves understood….

T: English is a useful tool in the modern world and in international affairs. I hope all of us stick to it and work hard at it.

Step II Listening

T: P65 . Listen for the first time, you just get a general idea. Listen again, and do the exx.

Step III Speaking

T: Suppose you have some problems in learning English. Have a discussion and give your advice.

Step IV Homework

Think of a good way to learn English. Preview the reading material.

Step V The Design of the Writing on the Bb

Unit 8 Learning a foreign language

The First Period

What is the most important way to learn English?

Memorize new words

Watch English films

Learn study skills

Practise writing in English

Talk with your classmates

Listen to the teacher

Read English stories

Make a study plan

Talk to native English speakers

The Second Period

Teaching Aims:

1.Learn and master the useful words and phrases.

2.Learn the characteristics of the successful Ss to improve the Ss’ English study.

Teaching Important Points:

1.Master the useful phrases and sentence pattern.

2.How to get the Ss to summarize the general idea of a paragraph. Enable the students to understand the text better.

3.How to get the Ss to master the way to improve their English, and put what they have learned into reality.

Teaching Difficult Points:

How to make the students bring the useful experience into English study to raise their English level.

Teaching Methods:

Fast reading to get a general idea and careful-reading to further understanding the text.

Discussion to check the Ss’ understanding of the text.

Pair work or group work to get the Ss active in class.

Teaching Aids:

1.a computer

2.a tape recorder

3.the blackboard

Teaching Procedures:

Step I Lead-in and Pre-reading

T: Today we’ll read some passages to learn sth about learning a foreign language. Answer the questions.

1.What are some of the difficulties we must face when we try to learn a foreign language?

2.How do we learn our mother tongue?

3.How is learning a foreign language different from learning our mother tongue?

4.What are the characteristics of successful language learners?

5.How do these characteristics and skills help us learn?

6.How can we develop our confidence?

7.What can we do to learn better and faster?

Step II Fast reading

T: Now read the passage once as carefully as possible. Then decide which language each of the sentences describes. F for foreign language, M for mother tongue. Check.

We learn quite fast. F

We are not taught but learn anyway. M

Some think we are born with an ability to learn this. M

We can learn faster if we develop study skills. F

Most have mastered this by the age of five. M

We learn this in a special place where we can get help. F

It takes longer to learn this. M

We learn this by communicating with others. M

Step III Reading and Explanation

Check the answers on P68, post reading. Explain the useful words.

acquire: to get for oneself by one’s own work, skill, action, etc.

make sense of

in other words

instruct

secure

take risks/ take a risk

experiment with

adopt

Step IV Listening and Reading aloud

T: Now I’ll play the tape. You can follow it in a low voice. Pay attention to your pronunciation and intonation. Read aloud the text. If you have any question, have a discussion.

Step V The Design of the Writing on the Bb

Unit 8 Learning a foreign language

The Second Period

Useful expressions:

Acquire, instruct, secure, adopt, experiment with, make sense of, in other words, take risks

The Third Period

Teaching Aims:

1.Review the phrases: academic, acquire, acquisition, adapt, adopt, awful, data, experiment with, instruct, make sense, translator, take risks

2.Review the Subjunctive Mood

Teaching Important Points:

1.Enable the Ss to remember and master the useful expressions.

2.Special verb forms used in the subjunctive mood and when to use the subjunctive mood.

Teaching Difficult Points:

How to judge when the subjunctive mood is needed and how to choose proper verb forms.

Teaching Methods:

1.Practise to get the Ss to use the words freely.

2.Comparision to get the Ss to have a clear idea of what they should master.

3. Individual work or pair work to make every student work in class.

Teaching Aids:

the blackboard

Teaching Procedures:

Step I Word Study

T: Find which words can match the definition given. Check.

T: Here is an interesting story about a French language expert on P69. After reading, you’ll know sth we shouldn’t do in learning a foreign language. Check.

T: What can we learn from the story?

S: Only reading a grammar book or remembering new words is not the best way to learn a foreign language.

Step II Grammar

T: Now let’s review the Subjunctive Mood (I). Let’s complete the form and the sentence patterns.

The Subjunctive Mood

1.

Principle Clause (main verbs) Conditional Clause (main verbs)

Present conditional

Past conditional

Future conditional

2. S. + wish+that-clause→S.+V.

3.It’s time that-clause→S.+V.

Step III Consolidation

Do some exx to consolidate the grammar item. Check the answers.

Step IV Summary and homework

T: We’ve learned the some new words and expressions and the Subjunctive Mood. Pay attention to the verb forms. Do other exx to master them better.

Finish all the exx in Grammar. Preview the content in Integrating skills.

Step VI The Design of the Writing on the Bb

Unit 8 Learning a foreign language

The Third Period

1.

The Subjunctive Mood

Principle Clause (main verbs) Conditional Clause (main verbs)

Present conditional might/could/should/would+do did

Past conditional might/could/should/would+have done had done

Future conditional might/could/should/would+do did

were to do

should do

2. S. + wish+that-clause→S.+V. → would/could+do

did

had done

3.It’s time that-clause→S.+V. → did

The Fourth Period

Teaching Aims:

1. Learn and master the words and expressions.

2.Train the Ss’ reading ability.

3. Practise writing the summary of a paragraph.

Teaching Important Points:

1.How to improve the Ss’ reading ability.

2.Enable the Ss to master how to use some useful words and expressions.

Teaching Difficult Points:

How to get the Ss to grasp the main idea of a paragraph when they are reading.

Teaching Methods:

1.Ask-and-answering method to go through the text.

2.Discussion to make the Ss grasp the main idea of a passage.

3.Individual, pair or group work to make every student work.

Teaching Aids:

1.a computer

2.a tape recorder

3.the blackboard

Teaching Procedures:

Step I Revision

T: Make sentences using the useful words and expressions. Check homework.

Step II Preparation for reading

Read the new words and expressions.

Level, association, junior, postcode, senior, proficiency, option, broaden, horizon, appropriate, fall behind

Step III Reading

T: What is the best way to do this is to go to a country where the language is spoken. Because if we are there, what we hear, see and meet are there, what we hear, see and meet are all foreign. As long as we communicate with others we must use the foreign language. I think in such an atmosphere anyone can learn a foreign language faster. Read the text and answer the question: Is it possible to study abroad? What should we do to begin with?

S1: Yes, it is.

S2: We should find out as much as possible about different programmes, including the cost and length of our stay.

T: Discuss the question: What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying abroad?

S3: Advantages:

(1They will become fluent in the new language.

(2)They will also learn many other things that are even more important.

(3)They will make friends with people from different backgrounds and understand another culture.

(4)They will learn about themselves and their own culture. This is perhaps the most valuable.

S4: Disadvantages:

Some of them may fall behind in their studies.

Many parents worry about the safety of their children.

They may also be concerned about the cost.

T: If you were offered a chance to study abroad for a year, would you like to go? Why or why not?

S: If I am offered a chance to study abroad for a year, I’ll be glad to do so. I’d like to go to Britain. Because I can learn pure English there. The Englishmen are friendly. I’m sure I would learn a lot about the country and its culture.

Step IV Listening and Reading aloud

Listen to the tape for the first time. Then listen and follow it in a low voice and read it aloud. Check if you have any questions.

Step V Homework

Go over all the important points learnt in this unit and complete the application on P72.

A World of Learning, International Student Exchange Agency

1234 School Street

Any town, CA 65432

USA

Family name: Yang Given name: Wenguang

Date of birth(MM/DD/YY):May 10,1985 Sex: Male

Nationality: Chinese Native language: Chinese

Address & postcode: No.15,8th Street Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021

Phone number: 010-873253 E-mail address:

Current school and level study: No.1 Middle School of Chaoyang District

English language proficiency and years of study: Graduated from Senior Middle School, Six years

Country in which you would like to study: The United States of America

Courses you would like to take: English literature

Essay: Write an essay and tell us briefly about yourself and why you want to be an exchange student.

Step VI The Design of the Writing on the Bb

Unit 8 Learning a foreign language

The Fourth Period

Summary of the text: Studying abroad.

P1:It is possible for a student of any level to study a foreign language in a country where the language is spoken.

P2: Advantages of studying abroad.

P3: Disadvantages of studying abroad.

P4: What should you do in order to study abroad?

Useful words and expressions:

Level, association, junior, postcode, senior, proficiency, option, broaden, horizon, appropriate, fall behind

Unit 13 The mystery of the Moonstone

The First Period

Teaching Aims:

1.Learn and master the new words and phrases: comfort, reception, considerate, astonish, tension, elegant, bachelor, turn down

2.Do some listening.

3. Do some speaking by talking, describing and discussion.

Teaching Important Points:

1.Train the students’ listening ability by listening practice.

2.Make the Ss express their ideas correctly.

Teaching Difficult Points:

1.How to improve the students’ listening ability.

2.How to help students finish the task of speaking.

Teaching Methods:

1.Listening-and-answering activity to help the students go through the listening material.

2. Individual, pair or group work to make every student work in class.

Teaching Aids:

1. a tape recorder

2. the blackboard

Teaching Procedures:

Step I Warming up

T: Can you imagine that your works are being read?

S: I always dreamt of being a famous writer like Wilkie Collins. But it’s only a dream.

T: Only a dream? Now, your dream may come true. Look at the pictures. Try to describe the people and events in each picture. Because the first thing you must have as a writer is rich imagination and the ability to describe sth. Talk about the pictures and put them in right order.(3-2-4-1-6-5) Then tell the story.

Step II Listening

T: Listen to some conversations happening at a birthday party. Look at the pictures and answer the questions:

What type of conversation do people have at a birthday party?

What topics might they discuss?

S: I think their conversation is friendly and enthusiastic. Sometimes they have a discussion, but not fierce.

S: I think at a birthday party, women may discuss sth about the hostess’ dress, jewels and the gifts while men always focus on cigars and some important events. Listen and check the answers.

Step III Speaking

T: Now it’s your turn to experience being an actor or actress. Read the two situations and choose one to make up a conversation. Firstly, write out the outlines and then act it out.

Situation 1:

Godfrey’s feeling for Rachel;

Reasons why he thought they would be happy as husband and wife;

The reasons Rachel might have given for refusing him;

How Godfrey felt when she turned him down;

Situation 2:

How Rachel felt about losing her diamond;

What the other characters said to comfort her;

What suggestions and advice they might have given her;

Who might be the thief

Step IV Homework

Preview the reading material.

Step V The Design of the Writing on the Bb

Unit 13 The mystery of the Moonstone

The First Period

What type of conversation do people have at a birthday party?

What topics might they discuss?

The Second Period

Teaching Aims:

1.Learn and master the useful words and phrases.

2.Train the students’ reading ability.

Teaching Important Points:

1.Master the following phrases and sentence pattern:

theft, entertainer, religious, enquiry, assistance, vital, smear, guilty, stain, considerate towards, in fact of revenge

2.Enable the students to understand the text better.

3.Improve the students’ reading ability.

Teaching Difficult Points:

How to make the students understand the reading text better.

Teaching Methods:

Pre-reading to predict what the text tells about.

Fast reading to get a general idea and careful-reading to further understanding the text.

Post reading to check the Ss’ understanding of the text.

Explanation for Ss to master some language points.

Teaching Aids:

1.a computer

2.a tape recorder

3.the blackboard

Teaching Procedures:

Step I Lead-in and Pre-reading

T: What we have learned in warming-up and listening is related to what we’ll learn today. So what is the story about?

S: It is a detective story. The story begins with the loss of the precious stone, The Moonstone. Sb stole the Moonstone. One day the Moonstone was given to a beautiful girl as a gift. The Moonstone was stolen again.

T: What happens next in the text?

S: It’s time for the detective to solve the puzzle.

Step II Reading

T: Now read the passage once as carefully as possible. Then answer some detailed questions on the screen. You may discuss them in pairs if necessary.

Who gave the Moonstone to Rachel and why he gave it to her?

Why wasn’t Rachel’s birthday a success?

Why did Sergeant Cuff believe that the garment with the paint stain belonged to the thief? Learn some new words and expressions.

Considerate towards sb: careful not to hurt or bring inconvenience to others.

might/may have done: show the possibility of sth having happened in the past.

in an act of revenge: in order to return an injury.

(from/out of)force of habit: to do some things in a certain way from always having done so in the past. Read the text to make a list of the people and the reason why Sergeant Cuff suspected that they might have stolen the Moonstone.

Suspect Reason for Suspicion

The Indians They followed the Moonstone around the world waiting for an opportunity to take it back to India.

Godfrey He might have stolen the Moonstone as revenge for loss of face, because Rachel turned down his proposal of marriage.

Dr Candy As with Godfrey, he lost face because of the quarrelling with Franklin.

Rosanna She might have taken the diamond either from force of habit, for she was a thief before Rachel’s mother gave her a job or cause a disagreement between Rachel and Franklin.

Rachel Perhaps she had debts that needed to be paid.

Franklin He gave the detective as much assistance as he can. His enthusiasm was the reason why he was suspected, because it was not his business.

Have a discussion about different people in the story. Decide who stole the Moonstone.

Step III Homework

Finish the exx. Preview “Language practice”.

Step IV The Design of the Writing on the Bb

Unit 13 The mystery of the Moonstone

The Second Period

Useful words and expressions:

theft, entertainer, religious, enquiry, assistance, vital, smear, guilty, stain, considerate towards, in fact of revenge, force of habit, might have done

The Third Period

Teaching Aims:

1.Learn and master the phrases.

2.Review the content of the reading in the last period.

Teaching Important Points:

Learn and master the usages of the words in the reading.

Teaching Difficult Points:

How to use the words to fill in the blanks.

Teaching Methods:

1. Review method to considerate the words learnt.

2.Inductive and Deductive methods to help the Ss master what they have learned.

3. Individual work or pair work to make every student work in class.

Teaching Aids:

the blackboard

Teaching Procedures:

Step I Revision

T: 1. Can you tell us who gave the Moonstone to Rachel and why he gave it to her?

2. Why Sergeant Cuff believed that the garment with the paint stain belonged to the thief?

Step II Language Practice

T: Now Go through the reading again and try to find words that match the following definitions. Then make two sentences with each of the words.

bachelor

tension

prescription

considerate

guilty

vital

stubborn

theft

T: Fill in the blanks, using the correct form of the given words.

happening

Suspecting

excited

stain

splendid

garment

vital

loss

tension

assistance

Step III Listening

Listen to a short play. Learn some new words.

Footprints, shoeprints, fingerprints

Print means a mark made on a surface showing the shape pattern of a thing.

T: In daily life, we often read about mysteries, for instance, in a criminal case. How can the police solve a mystery?

S: They must use some clues.

T: What clues do the police often find?

Footprints, shoeprints, fingerprints, cigarette, banana peels, marks…→mystery

Listen and check the answers.

Step IV Summary and homework

T: We’ve learned the new words and expressions. Do other exx to master them better.

Finish all the exx in Grammar. Preview the content in Integrating skills.

Step VI The Design of the Writing on the Bb

Unit 13 The mystery of the Moonstone

The Third Period

1. Can you tell us who gave the Moonstone to Rachel and why he gave it to her?

2. Why Sergeant Cuff believed that the garment with the paint stain belonged to the thief?

New words: Footprints, shoeprints, fingerprints

The Fourth Period

Teaching Aims:

1.Revise the useful expressions in this unit by practicing.

2.Improve the Ss’ reading ability by reading the material.

3.Do some writing practice to improve the students’ integrating skills.

Teaching Important Points:

1. Improve the Ss’ reading ability by reading the material.

2.Train the Ss’ writing.

Teaching Difficult Points:

Improve the students’ integrating skills.

Teaching Methods:

1.Fast reading to go through the reading material.

2.Inductive method to help Ss write a letter successfully.

Teaching Aids:

1.a computer

2.a tape recorder

3.the blackboard

Teaching Procedures:

Step I Lead-in

T: Do you remember your guess about who was the real thief to the Moonstone?

S: Yes. We have different opinions.

T: As a matter of fact, all of your answers are not right. Next we’ll enjoy the second part of the story. I think we can make it clear who was the real thief.

S: In other words, the mystery will be solved. Yes?

T: Of course.

Step II Reading

T: Scan the passage quickly and answer the questions.

Who actually stole the Moonstone?

S: Godfrey.

T: Now you are given some more time to read the text for some detailed information. Then answer some questions.

Whom did the detective suspect of having taken the Moonstone?

S: Many people were suspected, including Godfrey, Dr Candy, Franklin, Rosanna, the Indians and Rachel.

T: In fact, most of them were innocent. The story tells us Rachel was also innocent. But why didn’t she answer Sergeant Cuff’s questions?

S: The reason why she did it was that she saw Franklin take the diamond and wanted to protect him from Sergeant Cuff by not answering his questions.

T: According to the text, Rachel actually saw Franklin take the Moonstone. Howerer, Franklin didn’t remember anything. Do you know why?

S: Because Dr Candy had put some opium into Franklin’s drink to prove to him that it would be helpful for sleeping.

T: According to the text, we know Godfrey stole the diamond. But to our surprise, Godfrey was murdered, and the Moonstone was still missing. Who do you think was guilty for Godfrey’s death? What clues can you find to support your guess?

S: Some Indians who appeared at Rachel’s birthday behaved strangely. Some Indians attacked Godfrey. The Moonstone returned to its true home in India, where it once again decorates the forehead of the statue of the moon god. So we can infer that some Indians were guilty for Godfrey’s death.

Step III Writing

T: The writing task is also linked to the story.

The text says that Rosanna sent Franklin a letter. What do you think she would have written? With your partner write the letter from Rosanna to Franklin.

How does Sergeant Cuff feel about accusing Rachel of taking the Moonstone? Write a letter from Sergeant Cuff to Rachel apologizing for his mistake.

You can choose either to finish. But you should pay attention to the difference about the style of the two letters.

Dear Franklin,

It took me a long time to decide to write this letter to you.

I know what you did on the night the Moonstone disappeared. Because I found the paint stains belonging to the thief on your clothes when I cleaned your room. I want to keep you out of trouble, so I hid the evidence. Maybe you don’t know why I did it. That’s because of love. I have been in love with you since I met you for the first time.

I’m very sorry for Miss Rachel. But I don’t know what to do to help her without telling the truth to the detective.

Wish you good luck.

Sincerely yours,

Rosanna

Dear Rachel,

I’m writing to tell you in the hope of getting your apology. I suspected you of having taken the Moonstone yourselves. It proved to be wrong.

I hope you will accept my apology.

Yours,

Sergeant Cuff

Step IV Homework

Go over all the important points learnt in this unit and finish your writing.

Step V The Design of the Writing on the Bb

Unit 13 The mystery of the Moonstone

The Fourth Period

Who actually stole the Moonstone?

Unit 9

I. Phrases:

be diagnosed with

to make matters worse

take a bank loan

at half the cost

lay off

During the recession they laid us off for three months.

The doctor told him to lay off a couple of days.

He will lay off smoking.

get rid of

I’ve tried all sorts of medicine to get rid of this cold.

How can we get rid of all these flies?

put pressure on

aim…at

receive treatment

meet needs

make ends meet

He lost his job and what was worse, his wife was seriously ill, so he could not make both ends meet.

keep a healthy diet

be effective in

belong to

The developed countries should help the countries belonging to the third world.

15.take measures to do sth.

II. New words

abuse insurance income pressure 见优化设计

1. thanks to

owing to

because of

Thanks to your advice, I am keeping a healthy diet now.

Owing to the rain ,the match was cancelled.

2. as a result of (造成某种结果的)原因

as a result 结果是

result from 因…的结果发生

result in 结果是

She won the scholarship as a result of her hard work.

Illness often results from poverty.

I’m sure the government’s efforts to stop the spread of AIDS will result in success.

3.despite=in spite of 尽管;不管;纵使

Despite the bad weather we enjoyed our holiday.

Sir Fleming remained modest despite his achievements.

4. as is (was) the case with… 与…情况一样

He is late again this morning, as is often the case.

III Important sentences:

Three months later, however, Wang Lin was told about a health care project that provides treatment at half the cost or less, depending on the needs of the patient.

The project that saved Wang Lin’s life is one of the many government programmes aimed at improving the situation for the poorest people in China.

The government’s efforts to fight poverty and improve health care cover several aspects, reducing poverty, helping sick people get treated properly and providing medical insurance for the poor.

It was not until World War II that the importance of Fleming’s discovery was fully recognized.

《牛津英语7B》教材梳理-精讲精练

Unit 2 Welcome to Sunshine Town

Ⅰ. 本单元话题解读

1. 本单元话题 向他人介绍当地的环境与设施等。

背景知识 英国的一组交换留学生来参观阳光镇。北京阳光中学的学生在积极计划一些活动,同时他们讨论了当地的环境、住宅和休闲活动。也讨论了食物和饮料的数量。本单元的中心任务是让学生自己编写关于自己家乡的录像文字稿。

注意点 同学们要通过听、说、读、写的训练达到运用本单元内容的目的。

听:听懂并识别特定信息细节。

说:时间表达和计划安排的具体信息。

读:培养演绎的阅读技巧。

写:为特定的目的和对象写描述。

2. 小对话 根据句意及首字母提示,填出所缺的词。

Simon: W____ you like to go to Sunshine Town tomorrow?

Will: Yes, sure. W____ can we do there?

Simon: There’re l____ of things to do in Sunshine Town. We can know l____in

this new town.

Will: That ____ great. What t ____shall we leave in the morning?

Simon: We shall be there at 9 a.m.to e ____a full day there.

Will: Yes, that’s f____. I’ll m____ you at 8 a. m. tomorrow.

Key: Would, What, lots, life, sounds, time, enjoy, fine, meet

Ⅱ. 重点单词、词组及短语详解

【详解笔记】

1. order a pizza 叫一个比萨饼

[注意] order sth 叫/点(饭菜、饮料等),例:

Would you like to order something to drink?

你要叫些喝的东西吗?

[拓展] order还有命令、要求的意思

order sb to do sth 命令/指示某人做某事,例:

His father ordered him to go home at once.

他爸爸命令他立刻回家。

2. enjoy playing badminton 喜欢打羽毛球

[注意] enjoy sth/doing sth 喜欢/享受(做)某事,同义词组like/love doing sth.

[典型例题] Some boys of Class One enjoy___ music. (2004年北京市中考)

A. listen to B. listens to C. listening to D. listened to

点拨: enjoy doing sth。故选择答案C。

[拓展] enjoy oneself=have a good time 过得愉快/玩得开心

[典型例题] Did Mary enjoy ___ at the party? (2004年宁夏回族自治区中考)

A. her B. himself C. oneself D. herself

点拨: enjoy oneself的oneself要根据主语变为不同的反身代词.,这里主语是Mary,所

以应该用反身代词herself。故选择答案D。

[注意] play badminton 打羽毛球

badminton是球类游戏,所以badminton前不加冠词。例:

play football 踢足球 play basketball 打篮球 play tennis 打网球

[典型例题] Does Tom often play ___ football after___ school? (2004年湖南益阳中考)

A. 不填, 不填 B. 不填,the C. 不填,the D. a, 不填

点拨: football 是球类,所以不填冠词。after school放学后,固定词组搭配,不加冠词。

故选择答案A。

3. air pollution 空气污染

[注意]pollution是不可数名词,作单数使用。

[典型例句] There is little air pollution in the country.

农村里几乎没有空气污染。

4. such a tall building 如此高的一幢楼

[注意]such意为“如此的,这样的”后跟名词。例:

He lives in such a nice room.

他住在这么漂亮的房间里。

[辨析]He is such a clever boy. 他是如此聪明的一个男孩。

such后跟名词(组)a clever boy。

The boy is so clever. 这男孩这么聪明。

so后跟形容词或副词。

[典型例题]Lots of visitors come to Shanghai because she is___ city. (2004年兰州市中考)

A. so a beautiful B. very a beautiful

C. such a beautiful D. a quite beautiful

点拨: A应是so beautiful a,B应是a very beautiful,D应是quite a beautiful。a beautiful city是名词词组,故应选择答案C。

[典型例题]He worked ___ hard that he passed the exam. ( 2004年湖南娄底市中考)

A. such B. so C. as D. too

点拨: work hard中的hard是副词。such后加名词,故排除A。so,as,too后都可

跟形容词或副词,但此处有that,是so …that句型。故选择答案B。

[拓展]such as 像…一样

[典型例句] Simon is not a boy such as Tom.

西蒙不是象汤姆一样的男孩。

5. places like this 象这样的地方

[注意]此处的like是介词,意为“象”。

[典型例句] This hat looks like a cat. 这只帽子看起来象只猫。

[辨析]He is like his mother. 他长得象他的妈妈一样。

这里like前有be动词,所以这个like是介词“象”,不可能是动词“喜欢”。

He likes English very much. 他很喜欢英语。

这里的like是谓语动词“喜欢”。

6. be close to 离…近

[注意]这里的close是形容词,意为“近”。

[典型例句]He is only close to the rich. 他只对有钱人亲近。

[辨析] Do not close the window. 不要关窗。

这里的close是动词,意为“关闭,闭合”。

They kept their eyes “closed”. 他们把眼睛闭着。

这里的closed是形容词,意为“关着的,闭合的”。

7. until ten o’clock 一直到十点钟

[注意]until是介词,意为“直到…时候,到…时候为止”

[典型例句]You can shop until ten o’clock at night. 你可以一直购物到夜里十点.

[辨析] I will wait until you agree. 我会等到你同意为止。

这句子表达的意思是wait“等候”这个动作要持续到你“同意”这个时候。

I won’t leave until you come back. 我要直到你回来才离开。

not…until 意为“直到…才,不…就不…”这句子表达的意思是“你不回来,我就不离开。” leave“离开”这个动作还未发生,要到你“回来”才开始。

[典型例题]It was a long day for Jack . He didn’t get home from school___ six o’clock.

A. since B. to C. by D. until (2004年杭州市中考)

点拨: 很明显这里是not…until句型,不会因为six o’clock而去选其他介词。故答案D。

8. teach you 教你

[注意]teach sb教某人(知识或技能等)。teach是动词,后跟人称代词的宾格。

[拓展]teach sb sth 教某人某事(物) teach sb to do sth教某人做某事

[典型例题]Who taught ___ math last year? (2004年湖南常德中考)

A. ours B. us C. our D. we

点拨: teach是动词,后跟人称代词的宾格,所以用宾格us。故选择答案B。

[典型例句]Can you teach me to skate?你可以教我溜冰吗?

9. shopper 购物者,顾客

[拓展] shopper是名词,由动词shop加后缀er构成名词,意为“…的人,…者”。例:

wait---waiter(服务员) teach---teacher(教师)

work---worker(工人) read--- reader(读者)

10. hospital 名词,医院

[辨析]in hospital (生病)住院 in the hospital 在医院里

[典型例题]---Is Mrs. Black really badly ill?

---Yes, she is ___ hospital. (2004年湖南娄底市中考)

A. at B. in C. in the D. on

点拨: 问句意为“布莱克夫人真的病得很严重吗?”答句应是“是的,她生病住院了。”

故选择答案B。

[典型例句] My uncle works in the hospital. 我叔叔在医院工作。

11. either 副词,意为“也”

[辨析]My uncle doesn’t smoke. My father doesn’t, ___. (2004年湖南益阳中考)

A. either B. too C. or D. also

点拨: either ,too ,also三个单词都有“也”的意思。either用于否定句,常置于句末;too用于肯定句,常置于句末;also用于肯定句,常置于谓语动词前;or是“或者,否则”的意思,在这里不符合题意。故选择答案A。

12. hold a party 开一个派对

[注意]hold 动词,意为“举行,举办(活动)”,此时hold等同于have。但用hold/have

时,该句一定要有主语(某人)。如无主语(某人),只能用“There be”结构。

[典型例题]There is going to have a football match next Friday. (2004年南京市中考)

A B C D

点拨: 本句的句意是“下周五要进行一场足球赛”。因该句无主语(某人),所以不能用hold/have,只能用“There be”结构。故错误项应是B,have改为be。

13. a full day 整整一天

[注意]full 形容词 意为“满的,完整的”,另还有“饱”的意思。

[典型例句]I’m not full, I need some more food to eat.

我没吃饱, 我还要吃点东西.

[拓展]be full of 充满了…的

[典型例句] The bottle is full of milk. 瓶子里装满了牛奶。

The classroom is full of students. 教室里满是学生。

14. friends nearby 附近的朋友

[注意]nearby 副词 在附近

[典型例句]I know the shop nearby 我认识附近的那家商店

[拓展] near 介词 在…附近

[典型例句]There is a park near our school. 我们学校附近有个公园。

near 形容词 近的

[典型例句] My new school is very near. 我的新学校很近。

15. show you around my hometown 带领你参观我的家乡

[注意]show sb around … 带领某人参观…,show sb sth 把某物出示给某人看

[典型例句]W ould you like to show us around your school?

你愿意带我们参观一下你们的学校吗?

Can you show me your new watch?

可以给我看一下你的新手表吗?

16. go into town on my bicycle 骑车进城

[注意]on a bicycle=by bicycle 介词短语 骑自行车

介词on 后要加冠词或形容词性物主代词

介词by后加名词单数,且不可加冠词或形容词性物主代词

ride a bike 动词短语 骑自行车

[典型例句]He goes to school on his/a bike. 他骑车上学。

He rides a bike to school. 他骑车上学。

17. the center of the town 镇中心

[注意]the center of=the middle of 在…中间/中央

[典型例句]There is a lake in the middle/center of the park.

公园中央有个湖。

18. instead 作为代替

[注意]instead副词,还有“相反”、“而”等意思。Instead单独用在句首或句末。

[典型例题]I’m not sure if I’m going to the party. I may go to the concert___.

A. only B. just C. instead D. little (2004年杭州市中考)

点拨: 根据句意“我不确信我是否去参加派队。相反我可能去参加音乐会。”选择答案C。

[拓展]instead of 代替…,而不… 后接名词、代词、动名词或介词短语。

[典型例题]Li Tao likes Yao Ming , he doesn’t like Bach am. (改为同义句)

Li Tao likes Yao Ming ___ ___ Bach am. (2004年西宁市中考)

点拨:李涛喜欢姚明而不喜欢贝克汉姆。答案instead of

【反馈训练一】

Ⅰ. 词组翻译

1. 喜欢跑步________ 2. 打排球________

3. 一群学生 ________ 4. 离电影院很近________

5. 这么漂亮的一个女孩________ 6. 把窗关着________

Ⅱ. 单项选择题

( ) 1. Did you enjoy ___ at the party, boys?

A. yourself B. you C. your D. yourselves

( ) 2. There ___ ___ air pollution in this area.

A. is, many B. are, much C. is, much D. are, many

( ) 3. His father ordered him ___ at home.

A. stay B. stayed C. staying D. to stay

( ) 4. Hong Kong is ___ big city.

A. so B. a such C. so a D. such a

( ) 5. ---What ___ he like? ---He’s friendly.

A. does B. do C. is D. can

( ) 6. Please keep your eyes___. Don’t ___ them.

A. closed, opened B. close, open

C. closing, opening D. closed, open

( ) 7. My uncle taught me ___ a kite last year.

A. fly B. flew C. to fly D. to flying

( ) 8. There are many ___ in the ___ mall.

A. shops, shopper B. shopper, shopping

C. shop, shopping D. shoppers, shopping

( ) 9. I ___ want to give you a present for your birthday.

A. too B. either C. much D. also

( ) 10. My cousin went to work ___ bike yesterday.

A. by a B. on C. with D. on his

Ⅲ. 按要求改写句子

We had a good time last Sunday. (改为同义句)

We ___ ___ last Sunday.

Jim is a boy. He is so cool. (两句合并为一句)

Jim is ___ ___ ___ boy.

There was a party in Susan’s home yesterday. (改为同义句)

Susan ___ a party ___ home yesterday.

There is a little sheep on the hill.(改为复数句)

There ___ ___ little ___ on the hill.

Can I have a look at your new hair clip? (改为同义句)

Can you ___ ___ your new hair clip?

There is a bottle of orange on the table. (对划线部分提问)

How ___ ___ of orange ___ there on the table?

It took me 20 minutes to go to the town on foot. (改为同义句)

I ___ 20 minutes ___ to the town.

There is some bread in the bag. (改为一般疑问句)

___ there ___ bread in the bag?

Ⅳ. 单句改错 选出错误的项,然后在横线上改正

( ) 1. Lucy enjoys to listen to music very much. ________

A B C D

( ) 2. Could you play piano before you came to our school? ________

A B C D

( ) 3. I think Suzhou is a good place for people living in. ________

A B C D

( ) 4. There was few air pollution in my hometown ten years ago. ________

A B C D

( ) 5. I like to live here because it is close from my school. ________

A B C D

Ⅲ. 重难点句子详解

【详解笔记】

Let’s take them to the sports center.

让我们带他们去体育中心吧。

[注意]Let’s …祈使句,表示建议。 let sb do sth 让某人做某事 此处的sb要用宾格,后接不带to 的动词不定式。

[典型例句]Let me count the new books. 让我来数新书。

[典型例题]---There is a ticket on the floor, is it yours? (2003湖南娄底市中考)

---Oh, yes, it’s mine.

---Let me ___ for you.

A. to pick up B. to pick it up C. pick up it D. pick it up

点拨: 句型let sb do sth,所以选择C或D,但pick up中的up是副词,代词it须置于up前。故答案选择D。

[拓展]Let’s …的反意疑问句:Let’s …,shall we?(包括听者)

[典型例句]Let go shopping,shall we?我们去买东西好吗?

Let us …的反义疑问句:Let us …,will you?(不包括听者)

[典型例题]Let us stop and have a rest, ___ ___? (完成反意疑问句)

点拨: Let us …,will you? (2003山东烟台中考)

2. There are lots of things to do in Sunshine Town.

在阳光镇有很多事情可以做。

[注意]There be sth to do 有…可做

There is much homework to do tonight. 今晚有很多作业要做。

句中如有主语(人)则可换成have sth to do 句型。

We have much homework to do tonight. 今晚我们有很多作业要做。

[典型例题]---Shopping with me? ---Sorry, I have a lot of clothes ___.(2004年江西中考)

A. to wash B. washed C. wash D. to be washed

点拨: have sth to do, 而D是被动语态,故选择答案A。

[拓展]There be sb doing sth 有某人正在做某事

[典型例句]There are some boys playing football. 有一些男孩子在踢足球。

3. It’s only 40 minutes from the center of Beijing by underground.

距北京市中心乘地铁40分钟的路。

[注意]It’s …(时间/路程)from… 离…有…(时间)的路程

[典型例句]It’s two kilometers from my home to my school.

从我家到学校有两公里路。

[典型例题]It’s ten minutes’ walk from my home to the school. (对划线部分提问)

___ ___ is it from your home to the school? (2004年湖南常德市中考)

点拨: 划线部分的意思是“走十分钟的路”,对路程提问,故答案应是How far.

4. If you can’t find all your souvenirs here, we can take you to other shopping malls.

如果你在这里买不到你所要的纪念品,那么我们可以带你去其他的购物中心。

[注意]这一句型是if引导的条件状语从句,意思是“如果…,那么就…”

[拓展]if引导的条件状语从句中,如果主句是一般将来时,从句用一般现在时。

[典型例题]The students will go to the Summer Palace if it ___ tomorrow. (2003年甘肃中考)

A. don’t rain B. won’t rain C. doesn’t rain D. isn’t rain

点拨: 此处易被从句中的tomorrow干扰,但只要记住“if引导的条件状语从句中,如果主句是一般将来时,从句用一般现在时”,那么答案就是C。

5. Why don’t you visit our local theatre with us?

为什么不和我们一起去当地的戏院呢?

[注意]Why don’t you do …? 为什么不…呢?

用于表示征求意见或建议,还可用Why not do …? 这一句型来表达。

[典型例题]1) 你父母正忙于工作,你为什么不自己做呢?(2003年北京市中考)

Your parents are busy working. Why___ ___ it yourself?

2) 为什么不早点到校呢? (2004年湖南娄底市中考)

Why ___ ___ come to school earlier?

点拨: 根据题意要求,第一题答案是not do,第二题答案是don’t you。

6. It takes 40minutes to walk to the center of Beijing.

走到北京市中心要40分钟。

[注意]It takes sb …(时间)to do sth.

花某人…(时间)做某事,主语为形式主语it。

[典型例句]It takes me an hour to do my homework every day.

我每天花一个小时做作业。

[典型例题]工人们花了多少时间建这座桥? (2003年北京市中考)

How long ___it ___ the workers ___ build the bridge?

点拨: 由题目可看出主语是it,时态是一般过去时。故套用It takes sb …(时间)to do sth句型。答案应是:did,take,to。

[拓展]与It takes sb …(时间)to do sth.相似的句型还有:

sb spends…(时间/金钱)doing/on sth

花…(时间/金钱)做某事

sb pays …(金钱)for sth

在…方面花…(金钱)

sth costs sb…(金钱)/It costs sb …(金钱)to do sth

某物花费某人…(钱)

[典型例题]1) ---How much does it ___to fly from Beijing to Haikou one way?

---About 1,000 yuan. (2003年宁波市中考)

A. cost B. pay C. spend D. take

点拨:根据回答,问句句意是“北京飞往海口的单程票价是多少?”关键词是“钱”和“to fly”,且主语是it。故套用It costs sb …(金钱)to do sth句型,答案应是A。

2) This book is useful to me, so I ___ 20 yuan for it yesterday.

A. spent B. cost C. took D. paid (2003年贵阳市中考)

点拨: 根据句意是“我昨天花20元买这本书” 关键词是“钱”和“for”,且主语是I。故套用sb pays …(金钱)for sth句型,答案是D。

3) Ted ___ ten dollars on the shirt yesterday.

A. cost B. spent C. paid D. took (2003年四川省中考)

点拨: 根据句意是“Ted昨天花10美元买了这件衬衫” 关键词是“钱”和“on”,且主语是Ted。故套用sb spends…(时间/金钱)doing/on sth句型,答案应是B。

7. We need some eggs and tomatoes. 我们需要鸡蛋和西红柿。

[注意]need 行为动词 意为“需要”。构成疑问句或否定句的助动词是do

need sth 需要某物 need to do sth 需要做某事

[典型例句] I need your help. 我需要你的帮助。

I don’t need your help. 我不需要你的帮助。

I need you to help me. 我需要你帮助我。

I don’t need you to help me. 我不需要你帮助我。

[拓展]need还是情态动词 构成疑问句或否定句用need

[典型例句] Need I mend the radio for you? 需要我帮你修收音机吗?

---Must I finish my homework now? 我必须现在完成作业吗?

---No, you needn’t. 不,你不必。

8. What about beef? 吃些牛肉好吗?

[注意]What about sth/doing sth? (做)…好不好/怎么样?

表示建议或征求意见,且此句型中的some 不改为any。

[典型例句] What about some milk? 喝些牛奶怎么样?/要不要喝牛奶?

What about watching TV? 看电视怎么样/好不好?

9. I sent an e-mail to Mr. Wu to say thank you.

我发了封电子邮件给吴老师表示感谢。

[注意]send sth to sb=send sb sth 送某物给某人

[典型例句] We often send a card to our teacher on Teachers’ Day.

我们经常在教师节送贺卡给老师。

10. I really like the boy in a red T-shirt. 我真的很喜欢那个穿红T恤衫的男孩。

[注意]the boy in a red T-shirt 穿红T恤衫的男孩

in a red T-shirt中的in 是“穿/戴”的意思,介词短语作定语,修饰名词boy。

有时用in+ adj(颜色)来表示穿…颜色的衣服

[拓展]The girl under the tree is Lucy. 那个在树下的女孩是露茜。

I don’t know the boy on the bike. 我不认识个骑车的男孩。

[典型例题] Who is the man___ black? (2003宁波市中考)

A. in B. with C. on D. of

点拨: the man in black 穿黑衣服的人,答案A。

11. That sounds great. 那听起来好极了。

[注意]sound 感官动词意为“听起来…”,后接形容词。

[典型例题]Let’s enjoy the song Yesterday Once More. It sounds___. (2003年南通市中考)

A. well B. sadly C. nice D. bad

点拨: 句意“Yesterday Once More这首歌听起来很优美,让我们来一起听。”感官动词sound后接形容词。故选择答案C。

[拓展]感官动词还有:look(看起来…),feel(感觉起来…),smell(闻起来…),

taste(尝起来…)等。

[典型例题] Coffee is ready. How nice it ___. Would you like some? (2003年上海市中考)

A. looks B. smells C. sounds D. feels

点拨: 句意“咖啡味道闻起来香”。故选择答案B。

We all feel ___(pride)of them. (2003年四川省中考)

点拨: feel 感官动词后接pride的形容词proud.

12. I think it’s a beautiful place to live. 我认为那是一个居住的好地方。

[注意]a place to do 一个做..(事情)的地方

[典型例句]Suzhou is a good /wonderful/great/beautiful place to live(in).

苏州是人居天堂。

【反馈训练二】

Ⅰ. 单项选择

( ) 1. Please let him ___ a rest.

A. has B. to have C. have D. having

( ) 2. There’s a girl ___ in the room.

A. sing B. sings C. singing D. is singing

( ) 3. It’s 4,000 meters ___ my school and my home.

A. from B. at C. between D. in

( ) 4. I ___ you if he ___ here tomorrow.

A. will call, get B. call, will get

C. call, gets D. will call, gets

( ) 5. How much did you ___ for the computer?

A. cost B. spend C. pay D. take

( ) 6. What about ___ juice? Yes, please.

A. drink some B. drinking any

C. to drink some D. drinking some

( ) 7. We sent a nice present ___ our friend.

A. with B. for C. from D. to

( ) 8. Tom looked ___ at the party yesterday.

A. happy B. happily C. be happy D. at happy

Ⅱ. 完成句子

你昨天为什么不去动物园?

Why ___ you ___ to the zoo yesterday?

博物馆里有很多有趣的东西看。

There ___ many ____things ____ ____ in the museum.

我每天骑车上学要20分钟。

It ____ ____ 20minutes ___ go to school by bike every day.

我们踢足球好吗?

Let’s ___ football, ___ ___?

有一个穿黄衣服的男孩在等你。

There is a boy ___ yellow ___ ___ you.

上星期丹尼给我发了个邮件。

Daniel ___ an ___ ___ me last week.

阳光中学是个学习的好地方。

Sunshine School is a good ____ ____ ____ in.

8. 牛奶闻起来多香啊!

___ nice the milk ___!

Ⅳ.单元语法详解

【详解笔记】

1. How much meat do you have? 你有多少肉?

How much “多少” 对不可数名词的数量提问,How much后直接加不可数名词。

[典型例句] How much rice did she eat? 她吃了多少米饭?

How much juice do you need? 你需要多少果汁?

[注意] How much后接的不可数名词在谈话双方都明确所指事(物)时,不可数名词可省去。

[典型例句] There is much bread here. How much do you want?

这里有许多面包,你要多少(面包)?

[典型例题] --- ___ is the ticket for the film HackerⅡ? (2003年北京市西城区中考)

--- About forty yuan.

A. How old B. How many C. How much D. How often

点拨: 根据回答“大约40元”,可知问句应是“黑客帝国Ⅱ票价是多少钱?”--- money 不可数,所以应是How much money,但money常略去。故选择答案C。

2. How many oranges do you have? 你有多少橘子?

How many “多少” 对可数名词的数量提问,How many须后直接加可数名词复数。

[典型例句] How many tomatoes do you need? 你要多少西红柿?

[注意] How many后接的可数名词复数,在谈话双方都明确所指事(物)时,可数名词复数可省去。

[典型例句] I have lots of apples, how many would you like?

我有很多苹果, 你要多少(苹果 )?

[典型例题] --- ___ students are there in your class?

--- Forty –one. (2003年北京市高级中等学校招生考试)

A. How many B. How much C. How long D. How heavy

点拨: 根据回答得知:可知问句应是“你班有多少学生?”--- students可数名词复数,所以答案应是A. How many。

3. There is no chicken. 没有鸡肉。

no形容词,后跟可数名词或不可数名词。例:

no eggs 没有鸡蛋 no cakes 没有蛋糕

no water 没有水 no money没有钱

[注意]no后跟的名词前都不可加冠词或形容词物主代词。

[典型例句] He is no friend of mine. 他不是我的朋友。

=He is not a friend of mine.

[典型例题]--- Is there a bus to the zoo? (2003年武汉市中考)

--- I’m afraid there is___ bus there.

A. no B. any C. some

点拨: 回答是“没有车去那里”。没有车,no bus。故选择答案A。

4. How many chips are there? There are none.

有多少薯条?没有。

none代词,后不可加名词。常用There is none. 来代替不可数名词,There are none. 来替代可数名词复数。

[典型例句]Is there any food in the fridge? There is none.

冰箱里有吃的吗?没有。

[注意]这里的There is none可以替换为There is no food.

[典型例句]How many books are there on the desk? There are none.

桌子上有多少书?没有。

[注意]这里的There are none可以替换为There are no books.

5. the capital of China 中国的首都

the 定冠词,常置于名词前。

[注意]定冠词the有如下几种用法:

特指的 指已提过或正在讨论中的人或物已提过。

也可与无形容词修饰的名词连用如:sea, sky, wind等。

     2.双方都知道的 用于所指的人或物十分明显的情况。

     3.唯一的  与代表独一无二事物的名词连用

     4.与最高级连用

     5.乐器名词前

     6.专有名词前,在江、河、湖、海及山脉前

 [典型例句] 1. I have a book. The book is very interesting.

  我有一本书,这本书很有趣。(已提过的物)

2.There is a plane in the sky.

天空中有架飞机。 (与无形容词修饰的名词连用)

3.The moon goes around the sun.

  月亮绕着太阳转。(唯一的)

4.Please take these letters to the post office.

  把这些信拿到邮局去。(双方都知道的)

5.Tom is the tallest in the class.

  汤姆全班最高。(与最高级连用)

6.They went to the Red Sea last year.

  他们去年去了红海。(专有名词前)

【反馈训练三】

Ⅰ.冠词填空  根据需要正确填写冠词

___ earth we live on is bigger than ___ moon.

---How do you get home from___ school? By bus?

---No, I walk. ___ school is not far.

There is ___ a lamp on ___ desk near the window.

---How far is it from our factory to ___ seaside?

--- It’s about ___ eight-kilometer walk from here.

There is ___ tall tree near ___ lake.

Which is ___ largest animal in ___ sea?

We saw ___ elephant in the zoo. ___ elephant was from India.

Ⅱ.按要求完成句子

1. I have two pens. (对划线部分提问)

How ___ ___ do you have?

We have some milk for breakfast. (对划线部分提问)

How ___ ___ do you have for breakfast?

3. There is a box on the table. (对划线部分提问)

How ___ ___ ___ there on the table?

4. I can see lots of sheep on the hill. (对划线部分提问)

How ___ ___ can you see on the hill?

5. There is a bag of rice in the room(第一句对a 提问,第二句对a bag 提问)

1)How ___ ___ of rice ___ there in the room?

2)How ___ ___ ___ there in the room?

Ⅲ. 完成句子

他们时间做作业。

They have ___ time ___ ___ their homework.

你有多少块橡皮?没有。

How ___ ___ do you have? ___.

这台电脑多少钱?

How ___ ___ does the computer ___?

教室里有多少孩子?

How ___ children ___ there in the classroom?

Ⅴ.课文习题点拨

Ⅰ.Welcome to the unit (P21)

Part A:1. shopping 2. eating 3. playing 4. watching

点拨:like/love/enjoy doing

Part B: 1. shopping mall 2. sports center 3. restaurants 4. cinema

Ⅱ.Reading (P24)

Part B1:1.c 2. b 3. e 4 .a 5. d

PartB2: 1. Town 2. souvenirs 3. Chinese 4. Putonghua 5. Beijing Opera

Part C1: 1.F( It is 40minutes from the cinema of Beijing by underground)

2.T 3. T

4.F(There are more than two shopping malls in Sunshine Town)

5. T 6. T

Part C2: 1. c 2. e 3. b 4. f 5. d 6. a

Ⅲ. Vocabulary(P26)

Part A: 1. c 2. d 3. b 4. a 5. b 6. a 7. c 8. d

Part B: 1. hospital 2. school 3. supermarket 4. restaurant

Ⅳ.Grammar

Part A1:1. N/ How much 2. Y/How many 3. N/How much

4. Y/How many 5. Y/How many 6. N/How much

7. N/How much

Part A2: 1. How many 2. thirty( 根据包装袋的数字30)

3. How much 4. fifteen 5. How much 6. three

7. How many 8. twelve 9. six 10. how many

11. five 12. four

Part B: 1. no 2. none 3. no 4. none

5. none 6. none

Part C1: 1. the 2. × 3. the 4. × 5. the

6. × 7. × 8. the 9. × 10. ×

Part C2: 1. The 2. a 3. The 4. The 5. the

6. an 7. the 8. the 9. the 10. a

Ⅴ. Integrated skills (P32)

Part A2:

Time Place Things to see

10.00a.m. Taihe Palace Golden throne

10.30a.m. Zhonghe Palace Works of art

11.00a.m Baohe Palace Works of art

1.00p.m. Jingen Palace Bronzes

1.40p.m. Yonghe Palace Pottery

2.30p.m. Huangji Palace Chinese paintings

4.00p.m. Fengxian Palace Clocks and watches

Part A4: 1. See the golden throne in Taihe Palace at 1.40 p. m 10.00a.m.

2. Go to Zhonghe Palace at 10.13 a.m. 10.30a.m.

3. See a stone carving in Jinghe Palace. Baohe

4. See brones in Jinghe Palace at 11.00a.m. 1.00 p.m.

5. See Chinese paintings in Baohe Palace at 2.30p.m. Huangji

6. See clocks and lamps in Fengxian Palace at 4.00p.m. watches

Ⅵ. Pronunciation (P34)

Part B: 1. house 1 5. summer 2

2. master 2 6. shopping 2

3. father 2 7. hospital 3

4. school 1 8. souvenir 3

Part C:cartoon mirror

football modern

homework welcome

Part D:2. √ 3. √ 5. √ 6. √ 7. √

Ⅶ. Checkout (P37)

Part A: 1. no 2. a 3. How many 4. no 5. none

6. no 7. How much 8. a 9. none 10. the

Part B: BUILDING POLLUTION PARK

SHOP RESTAURANT THEATRE

Ⅵ.单元必考题演练

Ⅰ.词汇

A) 根据首字母或中文提示写出单词。

1. ______ (也许)he is in the classroom.

2. At the weekend, there are many s______ in the supermarkets.

3. Do you often go to the ______ (戏院) on Sundays?

4. Does Millie go to school by b______ every day?

5. There is little air p______ in our hometown.

B) 按括号内的要求写出词形.

1. many (最高级) ______ 2. choose (过去式)______

3. loaf (复数) ______ 4. wonder(形容词)______

5. fly (第三人称单数形式)______

C) 用所给的单词的适当形式填空.

I really enjoy ______(run) in the morning.

I think ______ (sandwich) are nice to eat.

Tomorrow will be a ______ (sun) day.

Be quiet, father ______(sleep).

It usually takes Tom 20 minutes ______(walk) to school.

D) 用how many或how much填空.。

1. ______ students are there in your school?

2. ______ Coke is there in the fridge?

3. ______ bottles of coffee are there on the table?

4. ______ money do you need?

5.______ sheep are there in the hill?

E) 根据句意,用确切的介词填空。

Welcome ______ our school!

There are lots of things _____ the supermarket.

I can buy a pen _____ five yuan.

There is a swimming pool _____ the two buildings.

The man showed us______ his hometown yesterday.

Does your mother often take you _____ the museum?

Wilson wants to visit places _____ Beijing and Shanghai.

Simon lives ______ the fifteenth floor of the building.

Would you like to see a film ______ us?

My home is not far _____ the cinema.

Ⅱ. 单项选择题

( ) 1. How much milk is there in the bottle? ─______.

No. B. None. C. No one. D. Many.

( ) 2. Do you enjoy ______?

listen to music B. listening to musics

C. to listen to music D. listening to music

( ) 3. How do you usually go to work? ----- I usually go ______.

by a underground B. by underground

C. take the underground D. by the underground

( ) 4. What about _____?

A. going swiming B. going swim

C. going to swimming D. going swimming

( ) 5.─ Do you know the way to the zoo?

─ Sorry, I don’t know, ______.

too B. either C. all D. both

( ) 6. Can you ______ Japanese?

A. say B. speak C. tell D. talk

( ) 7. The post office is _____ from the Sunshine School.

A. ten meters far B. ten meters away

C. ten meters far away D. ten meter away

( ) 8. Let’s meet ______ the shopping center _____ seven thirty.

A. in, at B. at, in C. on, at D. in, on

( ) 9. -Would you like to come to my home for dinner?

-Yes, I ______.

A. like B. would like

C. would love D. would love to

( ) 10. - Please say hello to your mother for me.

-Thanks, _____.

I do B. I was C. I am D. I will

Ⅲ. 完形填空。

There is a big 1 near my home. It sells(卖) many 2 , such as bikes, colour TV sets, fridges and some 3 things. The things are cheap in the shop. People 4 go shopping there. There are 5 people in the shop every day. On Sundays, I 6 my mother to do some 7 there. The shop 8 before8:00 every morning and it is _9 late in the evening. The assistants(服务员) in it 10 very hard every day.

( ) 1. A. school B. shop C. bank D. park

( ) 2. A. books B. thing C. ruler D. things

( ) 3. A. the others B. others C. other D. the other

( ) 4. A. sometimes B. often C. not D. never

( ) 5. A. a lot of B. a lot C. lot of D. lots

( ) 6. A. helps B. let C. help D. make

( ) 7. A. shop B. shops C. shopping D. to shop

( ) 8. A. opens B. are open C. open D. opened

( ) 9. A. closes B. closed C. closing D. close

( ) 10. A. sell B. work C. works D. study

Ⅳ. 阅读理解

Big Ben is not the name of a man. It is the name of a huge clock in London. London is the capital of the UK. This clock has four faces, so no matter(无论) where you stand, you can read the time on the face of Big Ben. Each face is the size of a double-decker(双层的)bus. The hands are about four meters long. It is about the size of two people standing on top of each other. If you go to London, you may want to visit the House of Parliament (国会大厦). That is where you will find Big Ben sitting at the top of the clock tower(塔) in the House of Parliament. You will hear it as well as see it. The big clock makes such a loud sound, “Ding dong, ding dong,” it goes every quarter of an hour. The clock was named after a big man. He was Sir Benjamin Hill. He did much building work in London many years ago.

( ) 1. Big Ben is _____.

A. a double-decker bus B. a huge clock

C. the name of Ben D. a building

( ) 2. The clock strikes every _____ of an hour.

ten minutes B. fifteen minutes

C. thirty minutes D. forty- five minutes

( ) 3. Which two words mean the same as “large”?

big and double B. huge and loud

C . big and huge D. giant and small

( ) 4. You can read the time of Big Ben _____.

at the top of the clock tower

in the House of Parliament

on the hands of the huge clock

D. on the four faces of the clock.

( ) 5. The title (标题) of the passage may be _____.

A. Big Ben B. A Clock

C. Sir Benjamin Hill D. The Capital of the UK

Ⅴ. 单句改错 把错误的项选出来,然后在横线上改正。

(  )________1. Do you love stay with me for supper?

A B C D

(  )________2. Simon wants to tell us of the life at school.

A B C D

(  )________3. I have more apples then you. Don’t you think so?

A B C D

(  )________4. Most of us don’t know Lily is so a clever girl.

A B C D

(  )________5. They have to finishing doing their homework now.

A B C D

(  )________6. We can’t leave now. We must wait at 8:00 here.

A B C D

(  )________7. You can eat different food in the west restaurants.

A B C D

(  )________8. Is that all? What other would you like to buy?

A B C D

(  )________9.We had the really good time at the party.

A B C D

(  )________ 10.There are a park and a cinema near my home.

A B C D

Ⅵ. 写作练习

周涛要向他的网友Stephen介绍他家乡人们的生活情况,他列了以下要点。请你用大约70个词帮他翻译一下。

1. 人们喜欢住在不同的地方。

2. 有人喜欢大城市。因为可以去大商店买各种各样的东西。

可以去很多的公园和戏院。

3. 有人喜欢农村。空气好、污染少,对身体有好处。到处都是鸟语花香。

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

参考答案 Unit 2

反馈训练一

Ⅰ. 1. like/love/enjoy running 2. play volleyball

3. a group of students 4. be close to the cinema

5. such a beautiful girl 6. keep the window closed

Ⅱ. 1.D 2. C 3. D 4. D 5. C 6. D 7.C 8. D 9.D 10. D

Ⅲ. 1. enjoyed, ourselves 2. such, a, cool 3. had/held ,at

4. are ,some ,sheep 5. show, me 6. many, bottles

7. spent ,walking 8. Is ,any

Ⅳ. 1. C. listening 2. B. the piano 3. D. to live

4. B. little 5. D. to

反馈训练二

Ⅰ.1. C 2.C 3. C 4. D 5. C 6. D 7. D 8. A

Ⅱ. 1. didn’t, go 2. are, interesting, to, see

3. takes, me ,to 4. play ,shall ,we

5. in, waiting, for 6. sent, e-mail ,to

7. place, to, study 8. How , smells

反馈训练三

Ⅰ. 1. The, the 2. /,The 3. a, the 4. the, an

5. a, the 6. the, the 7. an, the

Ⅱ. 1. many, pens 2. much, milk 3. many, boxes, are

4. many, sheep 5.1) many, bags, are 2)much, rice, is

Ⅲ. 1. no, to, do 2. many, erasers, None

3. much, money, cost 4. many, are

单元必考题演练Uint2参考答案

Ⅰ.) 1.Maybe 2.shoppers 3.theatre 4.bike/bicycle 5. pollution

B) 1. most 2.chose 3. loaves 4. wonderful 5.flies

C) 1. running 2.sandwiches 3.sunny 4.is sleeping 5.to walk

D) 1.How many 2.How much 3. How many

4. How much 5. How many

E) 1.to 2.in 3.with 4.between 5.around

6.to 7.like 8.on 9.with 10from.

Ⅱ.1-5BDBDB 6-10:BBADD

Ⅲ.1-5 BDCBA 6-10:CCABB

Ⅳ.1-5BBCDA

Ⅴ.1B→staying 2.C→about 3.B→than 4.D→such 5.A→finish

6.D→until 7.D→western 8.B→else 9.A→a 10.B→is

Ⅵ.

People in my hometown like to live in different places. Some like to live in big cities. Because they can go to big shops and buy all kinds of things. They also can go to many parks and theatres in the cities. But some people like to live in the country because the air is clean and there is less pollution in the country. And they can see flowers, trees and birds here and there. It’s good for health.

状语从句讲义(附相关高考题)

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